After reading the title of the article, for sure someone will definitely say - "why about something to write, with such work any owner of the apartment himself can handle."Yes, of course, the installation and connection of the chandelier does not belong to the works of the highest category of complexity, however, and these processes have specific nuances, which, by the way, also determine the safety of living in the apartment.
The chandelier is connected to electricity, and all electrical appliances with their incorrect installation become an source of danger - electric shock or even a fire. In addition, this light fixture is often massive, and can cause a lot of trouble in case of its unreliable fixation on the ceiling. Thus, the entire kompleks package associated with how to connect the chandelier with their own hands is conventionally divided into two directions: providing the with the correct connection of the
What to consider when choosing a chandelier
Contents of the article
- 1 What to consider when choosing a chandelier
- 1.1 Video: a few tips for choosing a chandelier
- 2 We are dealing with wires on a chandelier and on a ceiling
- 2.1 Video: 5-way chandelier to a two-switch
- 3 chandelier fixingceiling of the room
- 3.1 Suspension of the chandelier on the hook
- 3.2 Installation of the chandelier on the mounting plate
- 3.3 Features of attaching the chandelier to the ceiling of the gypsum board
- 3.4 Video: optionfastening the chandelier to the plasterboard ceiling
- 3.5 Attaching the chandelier to the suspended ceiling
- 3.6 Video: an example of installing a chandelier on the suspended ceiling
It is clear that the overwhelming most apartment owners choose this lighting fixture, relying primarily on its external design performance,so that it corresponds to the overall interior decoration of the room. However, one should not forget about some other aspects of the choice.
- The total luminous power of a chandelier must correspond to the size and type of room for which it is intended. There are -defined standards, which can be summarized as follows:
- For rooms where a soft scattered light is required, muted light( typical example - sleeping) should be based on 10 ÷ 12 W / m² area.
- For rooms with an average level of general illumination ( kitchen, bath, bathroom) or where additional lighting for specific workplaces ( office or children's) is supposed to be installed, the norm is 15 to 20 W / m².
- For rooms with bright lighting( living room), this is taken to be 20 W / m².
In accordance with the calculated power, a lighting device with the required number of horns should be selected. An important nuance - in no case can raise total illumination of , using more powerful lamps than authorized by the manufacturer. The material of the bubbles, cartridges, internal wiring section of can not be designed for increased loads, and this will cause the to damage the device or even to a fire hazard situation.
- The dimensions of the lighting device must be in harmony with the overall dimensions of the room. It's ridiculous to look like a huge chandelier in a fairly cramped room, or, conversely, too small simply lost in the plane of the ceiling of the vast hall. Designers recommend proceeding from the following considerations:
- The optimal diameter of the chandelier can be roughly determined by the formula:
D =( L + S) × 10
D - chandelier diameter in centimeters
L and S - the length and width of the room, respectively, in meters.
So, for example, for a room with dimensions of 5 × 3 m , the best option is a chandelier with a diameter of 80 cm.
- The type of chandelier chosen depends on the height of the room. If the ceilings in the room are low, about 2, 5 m , then it is better to give preference to the ceiling version of the lighting device, so that from the floor to it there were at least 2.0 ÷ 2, 2 m .The pendant variant will be appropriate in a room with high ceilings, and here the length of the suspension will be determined only by considerations of aesthetics.
- Be sure to match the type and material of the ceiling with the weight of the chandelier and the method of its suspension - this will be described below.
- Chandeliers are most often sold in disassembled form, so special attention is paid to completeness, matching of threads on all collapsible parts, integrity of decorative elements. Be sure to check the presence of the with a clear and understandable installation instructions for the product.
- Unfortunately, the market of lighting devices is literally oversaturated with by cheap and low-quality goods and frank fakes under well-known brands. On such products can be installed cartridges of low-grade plastic, which is not designed for high temperatures. The counterfeit will be provided with poor-quality electrical installation, wire twisting, absence of terminal connections and .Often it is necessary to independently to conduct re-connection of wires , their wiring and isolation by all rules. In particular, this applies to "heaped" chandeliers with LED additional circuits, power supplies or current transformers, remote control devices and .In order not to take on these extra efforts, it is better to pick up a product with a really high-quality cable and electrical "stuffing", to ask the store to assemble and check the operability of the product.
Video : a few tips on choosing chandelier
We deal with wires on the chandelier and on the ceiling
We will not consider in this article particularly complicated variants with chandeliers stuffed with electronics - their installation in most cases will unequivocally require the services of an appropriate qualified specialist. But the ordinary chandelier must be connected independently by everyone.
First of all, a few theoretical questions about their field of home electrical wiring. As you know, the power supply in our regions is organized by an alternating current with a standard voltage of 220 in the and a frequency of 50 Hz. Household wiring is carried out by two wires - phase and zero. If the house has a ground loop( in the modern housing it becomes a necessity and most often in new buildings this issue is pre-arranged), then the third wire, connected to the grounding bus is connected to the wiring.
There is a common color coding for single-phase mains wires:
wires. The characteristic nuance of is . If the neutral wire is always blue or blue and the grounding contact is yellow-green , the color of the phase wire can vary:
Often, in a single cable, several phase wires of one or more colors can be assembled - this is used, including and when connecting lighting devices, to switch different modes of operation:
phase wires Ideally, and on chandelier, and on house wiring such color marking should be used. However, practice shows that in both cases, this rule is not always observed. For example, in old houses for wiring used aluminum or copper wires in single-color insulation. In this case, the will have to deal with independently.
Special attention should be given to safety measures when working with wiring. It is strictly forbidden to touch exposed wires with unprotected hands unless the mains power is turned off. It is necessary to put on shoes with rubber soles. To work under the ceiling, you need to provide the with a reliable foundation - an unstable stool or bedside table can lead to loss of balance, fall and injury. For these purposes, the best option is a ladder mounted on a rubber mat.
1. So, the simplest version - from the hole on the ceiling comes cable with two wires. It is clear that one of them is phase, and the other is zero. According to the existing rules, zero must go directly to the junction box, and the phase one must be interrupted at the switch. Nevertheless, does not interfere with testing - very often electricians did not "bother" with these issues.
- For verification, it is necessary to have a special device - a phase indicator. Most often it is performed in the form of screwdriver with a transparent case, although modern models can have other designs, including even with indication of phase voltage.
- First of all, it is necessary to completely disconnect the room or the entire apartment on the switchboard. This is necessary in order to carefully clean wires from insulation and oxides for a length of 5 ÷ 8 mm. After stripping the wires are bred as much as possible to the sides, to exclude their closure. After that, the vending machine on the dashboard is turned on.
- Then, when the circuit breaker is switched off, both wires are sequentially checked. None should show the presence of a phase. If there is a phase on one wire - means the wiring in the house is not executed correctly - on the switch , judging by everything is interrupted by "zero".To change in this case is very difficult - just keep this in mind, taking extra care in further work.
- ceiling The phase is also checked for the with the switch on. As a result, a phase wire is identified that can be marked in a specific manner( with a marker or colored electrical tape).
2. If the has a switch with two or more keys in the room, then the corresponding number of of the phase conductors should resemble from the ceiling. The test is carried out in the same way as described above, with the labeling of each phase separately, according to the arrangement of the switch keys.
A similar test should be performed by the even , in the event that a wiring with a color marking is installed - just to avoid errors of the electrician, once of its mounted.
3. Now - on the cable part of the chandelier itself.
- The easiest way is when the chandelier is single- or two-three carob, without dividing them into groups. All the wires from the cartridges are assembled into two contact groups - zero and phase. If there is a ground wire, then it is usually attached to the metal housing of the luminaire.
- In case the requires dividing the horns with cartridges into two or more groups, then all the blue "zero" wires are connected in one bundle, and the phase ones are divided into several, according to the number of keys on the switch.
Very often on chandeliers, this can be seen quite clearly, and such a commutation will not be very difficult.
- 's palm. In both cases, the bundles of wire twisting should be thoroughly disassembled and placed in the terminal screw block or individual spring terminals.
- terminal block. It is somewhat more difficult to understand when the chandelier device gives the the ability to visually understand the its internal wiring. However, here you can also figure out how to call in se output wires with the help of a multi-tester. For this purpose, it is possible to consistently screw in a bulb in cartridges( energy-saving luminescent in this case will not help), and an experienced by find out which horn from which wire is powered by .After that it will be easy to distribute the horns into groups.
There are other methods for determining the internal wiring of the chandelier, based on the calculation of the resistance of the circuit with all lamps of the same denomination screwed into all the cartridges, but in practice it is probably easier to just ring each horn.
So, the result of checking the chandelier circuits and the fixed wiring in the room should be the clear understanding of the circuit, prepared for commutation and marked wires on the ceiling and a group of contacts on the light fixture itself.
Video: connection diagram five-lock chandelier to the two-key switch
chandelier fixing on the ceiling of the room
If the with the electrical part of the became clear, it is necessary to provide the with a reliable chandelier fixing on the ceiling. The technology depends on and chandelier designs, and type ceiling cover.
Suspension of the chandelier on the hook
This is an old and tried-and-tested way of assembling chandeliers that have a special loop, ring or hook for this purpose.
In old high-rise buildings, suspended hooks were installed in the ceiling holes of the while the was still under construction. If it costs, then the problem is less, however, it does not hurt to check it for strength. To do this, it is necessary to suspend the load with a total mass that is twice the weight of the chandelier planned for installation. If such a load with is easily maintained by , then there should not be any special concerns.
And that do, if the old hook is an unreliable or its state does not inspire confidence in the that the it will withstand the load? It's okay, you can install it yourself.
With a wooden ceiling, there should not be any problems in principle - is easily screwed into the hook-screw.
With concrete slab flooring there can be different solutions:
- It is possible to hang a hook on a transverse steel rod, which enters to cable channel slab. Be careful not to damage the with the rod of the wiring passing there.
- Another option with an old hole in the ceiling is to insert a hook with a "butterfly" lock in it. Going to the cable channel, the "wings" of this fastener straighten out and create the necessary support, and it remains only to fix the entire suspension with a washer and nut.
- If this option is not possible, for example, in case when the "regular" opening is not available for the hook, it will be necessary to drill a hole for the plastic plug in the concrete floor, but it's best to use a metal anchor with a ring or hook.
Before drilling, it is superfluous to evaluate the direction of the wiring from the junction box to the ceiling outlet, in order to accidentally break the cable or break its insulation.
If the inner cavity of the board is caught during drilling, special metal anchor for hollow structures is used - with its screwing is formed "skirt", is secure holding fastening element in the overlap.
After installing any kind of hook, it should be tested on the load - as described above. It is recommended that the exposed metal part be insulated afterwards by wrapping the with its insulating tape or by putting on the heat shrinkable tubing of the appropriate diameter on the with the appropriate diameter and then warming up.
If the hook is reliable , it is possible to hang the chandelier for a standard fastening. Be sure to turn off the general power supply of the room, in order to connect the contact part. The wires are connected with terminal connectors - strings are not allowed, because sparking with insulation fusion can occur on them. Connection is carried out in full accordance with the wiring diagram, about which was written above.
The place of the wire connection and suspension on the hook is usually closed with a decorative glass( hood).
After the installation is complete, turn on the power supply on the panel, then on the switch, to immediately verify the in the absence of short circuits. It does not hurt to check by the indicator that there is no phase on the metal case of the chandelier. If everything is normal, then with the keys of the switch turned off, the necessary lamps are screwed in or inserted into the socket and the practical functionality of all the chandelier horns is checked in all switching modes.
After the inspection, you can proceed to the final installation of the chandelier - installation of plafonds, suspension of all removable decorative parts and , ., According to the assembly instructions attached to the product.
Chandelier installation on the
mounting lath Many chandeliers, especially those designed for low spaces, are not hung on hooks, but are installed with screw fasteners on a special mounting plate, fixed to the on the ceiling. This greatly improves the reliability of the general installation, since the load is evenly distributed over several fastening points.
Mounting Bar The design of the mounting plate can be different - it all depends on the particular chandelier model and of its mass. The bar can be straight or curved, with brackets for fixing the housing of the lighting fixture or with protruding pins or screws.
The set with especially heavy chandeliers can include cross-shaped strips or as reinforced I-profile .
The bar can have a hole with edges covered with an insulating sleeve to allow the wires coming out of the ceiling. You can place the bar and in close proximity to the exit point of the cable - the chandelier housing will hide both the hole in the ceiling and the wire switching.
wire outlet. Mounting of the mounting plate to the ceiling plane is performed in various ways, depending on the specific conditions. In fact, this is described above, with the only difference that instead of dowels with a ring or hook, conventional, with a presser head "under sweat " are used.
Also , as with the hook, is required is tested reliability mounting under load.
Quite often a situation occurs when an excessively close arrangement of dowels from an old hole in the ceiling does not provide reliability mounting - the edge of the concrete can crack or crumble. So the optimal choice of fasteners and installation site yet remains for the direct executor of the work.
The fastening of the chandelier to the mounting plate can also have its own characteristics. Probably, in the this case will need help - the luminaire will have to hold the on its weight while the cable part is being switched. Once the wires are connected, the chandelier body is fastened to the bracket with decorative nuts or screws.
Further work on the operation and final installation is no different from the , as described above.
Features of fixing the chandelier to the ceiling from drywall
On a large account , to plan the placement of the chandelier on the plasterboard ceiling should still before its installation. In this case, no problems are foreseen - one or more additional metal profiles are pre-installed in advance to fix the mounting plate or with the hook, which will then be easily extended with a chain or rod. In the drywall sheet, the hole for the exit of the wires and the hook is immediately marked and drilled into the right place.
But what if this issue of chandelier suspension arose later?
- If lighting - hanging type , install the hook directly into the GVL - its strength is unlikely to be enough for a point load. You can do the following:
A hole with a diameter smaller than the decorative lamp cover is drilled in the ceiling.
Exactly at the center of this of the opening, with a long drill installed in the puncher, a hole is drilled in the slab over the anchor fastening .
An anchor with a long threaded pin is inserted and fixed to the limit in the hole made, so that the stud goes out beyond the plane of the plasterboard.
. The eye-nut is screwed onto the protruding end of the stud, to which the chandelier itself will be suspended later. The surplus of the hairpin is neatly cut off with a hacksaw.
If the ceiling has a hollow or an old hole - all as well as when working on a conventional ceiling, only fastening elements have not a ring but a long threaded part so that it comes out.
- If the chandelier of the console type , that is installed on the mounting plate, then much depends on the its mass.
- In case when the total with with is not more than 3 - 5 kg, the bar can be fixed directly to the sheet GVL.For this, special dowels for plasterboard - "butterfly" or snails are used.
The first ones are retained as a result of the expansion of the plastic structure under the sheet of gypsum board with screwing the self-tapping screw. The second principle of operation is different - a very high and sharp thread with a large plane of contact with the sheet material creates an reliable connection when screwing. The "snail" is screwed completely, flush with the surface of the GVL, in the right place, and on the its to the center of the remains the hole, into which the usual self-tapping screw easily comes.
- If the chandelier is larger than the heavy , then will have to use the method with anchors with studs to fasten the mounting plate.- - so, as was described above. The protruding threaded parts of two or more pins will become fastenings for the rack or cruciform cantilever.
All further actions are no different from the installation of a chandelier on a conventional ceiling.
Video: Variant nt cr Mounting of the chandelier to the gypsum board ceiling
Fastening the chandelier on the suspended ceiling
No practical advice on the self-assembly of the chandelier on the , the suspended ceiling will not be given - this should only be done by masters and only before the suspensionceiling cloth.
For installation of the chandelier, an assembly platform is prepared and suspended from the floor plate in advance, the lower cut of which must fall to the planned height of the stretched fabric. Based on the location of this embedded platform, the wizards must themselves cut and properly the image to process the holes, reinforcing their edges, through which the wires and fastening parts will pass.
Attempts to cut holes on your own to suspend the chandelier on an already installed stretch ceiling, using receptions as a plasterboard ceiling, will not lead to anything good. With a probability close to 100%, they are doomed to failure. A deplorable, but natural result of such amateur performance will be the need for a complete replacement of the canvas.
After the master ceiling mounts finish the work, leaving the reinforced with special eyelets for the chandelier and fixture, the installation of the fixture is carried out with the utmost care, in order not to break or puncture the surface in any way.
On the suspended ceiling, it is preferable to use a suspended version of the chandelier, so that the lamps are not in the immediate vicinity of the canvas. In addition, conventional incandescent lamps, " halogen " or luminescent "housekeepers" for these purposes will not work - they quickly spoil the decorativeness of the ceiling coating. So, for the ceiling to retain its attractiveness for the longest time, only LED models are needed.