Spotlights for gypsum plasterboard ceilings come in various types and a variety of designs. They neatly look at the plane of the ceiling and give the maximum amount of white or colored light that can be directed to a certain area of the room. Thus, with the help of them you can divide the room into zones not only by the intensity of the lighting, but also by the color scale.
Spotlights are installed in suspended ceilings, made not only from gypsum board, but also in mineral fiber plates, for example, structures such as the Armstrong system.
The wiring for the spotlights is hidden behind the suspended ceiling structure, so it does not have to do a lot of cumbersome work on the device to drown the cable in them. In addition, the technical part of the device will also be hidden in the interstitial space or in the bubble, and only the decorative part of the lamp will remain visible, so they will look aesthetically and neatly.
To choose one of the types of spot lighting devices for different living quarters, it is necessary to compile a design for their installation, it is necessary to understand their characteristics and classification.
Types of spotlights
Contents of the article
- 1 Types of spotlights
- 1.1 Construction of luminaires
- 1.2 Types of luminaires for lighting elements
- 1.3 Difference in voltage spotlights
- 1.4 Luminance security level
- 2 Getting ready for installation and installation of luminaires
- 2.1 What is neededfor mounting
- 2.2 Tools for installing spotlights
- 2.3 Assembling spotlights on the hypocarbon ceiling
- 2.4 Video: an example of practical installation of spotlights on a gypsum board ceiling
Point devices are divided into several criteria - these are the types of lamps, supply voltage, design, installation method and purpose for a particular room.
These differences are important to know, as some of them will save energy, others - to meet certain safety requirements for the operation of devices, and still others will contribute to the harmonization of the design of the room.
Design of luminaires
If the design of spotlights is viewed from different points of view, then they can be divided:
- on recessed and overhead;
- for rotary( cardan) and non-rotating;
- for single and cardan( block);
In addition, there is a separation according to the type of lighting elements( lamps) used, the voltage, and also the level of moisture and dust protection.
- Built-in and overhead models
The design of such lighting devices, in the first place, differs in the way they are installed. They are divided according to this criterion into overhead and embedded.
- Built-in variants are distinguished by the fact that their entire technical part is located in the interstitial space, and the decorative frame and the entrance to the chuck for screwing or installing the bulb - on the outside of the suspension system.
- Surface luminaires are fixed directly to the plasterboard surface, and their installation differs significantly from the built-in version. The installation of similar models sometimes has more similarity with the installation of a conventional chandelier, since the lamp holder is located in a plafond, fixed on the outside of the suspended ceiling.
Can you hang a chandelier?
Suspension and connection of this lighting device has a number of nuances. How to properly hang a chandelier , taking into account the features of the model - read the special publication of our portal.
- Swivel and fixed models
- The fixed fixtures are rigidly fixed in one position and illuminate a certain area. Their light can not be redirected to another area of the room.
- The swivel( also known as cardan) models are distinguished by the fact that the cartridge is built into their special additional swivel device, for example, two rings on the semi-axles. It can be rotated and installed at different angles, together with a lamp screwed into it. It is these models that allow you to direct the light in the right direction to illuminate a particular area of the room.
Turning blocks can be equipped with both recessed and overhead types of spotlights.
hinge This type includes luminaires fixed to the bar, so-called spots. The lamp holder is located in a special housing, which has a swivel rotating mechanism. The body is mounted on a leg, with which it is fixed on a rod or decorative panel.
- Single and block lamps
The spotlights can be single or assembled into blocks of several units.
- Single lamps are equipped with a single cartridge, respectively, they have one lighting lamp.
- Block lighting fixtures are a design consisting of several luminaires that are built into one housing, which is either a box of some shape, or a special bar.
. Depending on the design of the block fixtures, they can also be rotary and non-rotating, built-in or overhead.
Any design of such models is more massive, but it is also much more convenient in operation, since by installing one unit with several rotary lamps, their light can be directed to different areas of the room.
Types of fixtures for lighting elements
In spotlights can be designed for the use of different lighting elements - this must be indicated in the instructions for the lighting fixture. So, in such luminaires can be installed:
- incandescent lamps
- LED lamps;
- halogen lamps;
- mercury( luminescent) energy-saving lamps.
Lighting fixtures equipped with these or those elements expend a different amount of electricity and can vary significantly in price.
- Conventional incandescent lamps are now very rarely used in spotlights, as they are not economical in operation.
Fixtures equipped with incandescent lamps are considered "classic" devices, since they do not require special equipment - it will be enough to provide quality wiring.
In addition to the uneconomical nature of the incandescent lamps themselves, the luminaires designed to work with them have several more significant drawbacks:
Firstly, this is their height, which varies from 86 to 110 mm. This parameter must be taken into account, since the ceiling will be much lower, because the suspension structure will have to be lowered to the height of the cartridge, adding another 15-20 mm of stock.
Secondly, a pronounced "minus" of such a lamp can be called its strong heating, especially if a large lamp is installed in the cartridge. Plastic elements of the lighting device can not withstand high temperatures and begin to gradually melt under their influence.
The only advantage of incandescent lamps is their affordable price, however, one must also take into account that their service life is usually not very large.
- Halogen lamps are used to obtain a powerful light flux, scattered by a special glass ceiling. However, when installing such lamps in lighting devices, it should be borne in mind that they do not contribute to energy saving in any way. The price for them is slightly lower than for LED light bulbs, but they will serve for a shorter period.
Most often halogen lamps have a plug-in socket, so if you plan to use them, then you need to choose the fixtures with the appropriate connector in the cartridge.
The height of halogen lamps is comfortable enough for embedding them in gypsum board construction, which will need to be lowered from the overlapping surface by only 50 ÷ 70 mm. Since some halogen lamps are powered by a voltage of 12 V, the entire installed system will have to purchase a transformer. In addition, for any "halogen" a very important condition for their long operation is a soft starter - the lamp does not come to full power immediately, but for a few seconds. Often this device is combined with a step-down transformer.
Halogen lamps create a powerful luminous flux that exceeds the illumination from conventional or LED lamps. Fixtures of this type allow you to apply a special dimmer to adjust the intensity of lighting. The luminous flux from fluorescent lamps has its own shades - warm and cold.
Given all the positive qualities of this type of lamp, they can be called the most popular among all existing lighting elements used in spotlights.
- Energy-saving mercury lamps, which are often called luminescent lamps, efficiently save electricity, but they have several significant drawbacks.
- First of all, it is that they adversely affect eyesight, can cause rapid eye fatigue.
- Such lamps require special disposal because they contain substances harmful to the human body, in particular - very toxic mercury
. Another disadvantage of this type of lamps is their height, which is almost the same as that of conventional standard incandescent lamps.
The intensity of illumination from these devices will be higher if they are installed in overhead lamps. Well, if they are screwed into embedded models, which are deepened into the gypsum board structure, then there is a significant attenuation of the light flux, even despite the reflective surface of the plafond.
In a word, for spotlights it is difficult to call them a good option.
- LED lamps are expensive enough, but they justify themselves that during their operation, a minimum of electricity is used, and this helps to save a lot on its payment. In addition, high-quality LED devices serve much longer than any other lighting elements.
LEDs can have different light output, as well as cold or warm light. Lamps that have a cool shade are usually used for installation in office buildings, as they increase efficiency. Elements that give warm lighting, contribute to relaxation and relaxation, creating coziness, so they are recommended to use in living rooms.
If you decide to install spotlights with LED lamps, you can use a special dimmer that regulates the brightness of the lighting. It will allow to create in a room the necessary atmosphere by means of intensity of light, dissipating or "condensing" it.
Some types of these fixtures are equipped with a special plafond, capable of creating on the ceiling a variety of shadow or color patterns. This effect can be used to design a certain style of the interior.
LED lamps are made with a different base plate - for a conventional threaded chuck( with Edison thread 14 or 27 mm) and with a plug-in connection, characteristic for "halogen".In addition, spotlights can also have specific cartridges under the base of LED lamps such as GX70 and GX53.The sample is shown in the figure below.
Based on the foregoing, it can be argued that the best option for installation in spotlights today are LED lamps. The price for them is still high, however, they are safe, durable and economical, and quickly justify their purchase.
Difference of spotlights by voltage
As a rule, there are two main types of spotlights:
- devices designed for 220 V AC;
- luminaires designed for 12 V;
You can find models with LED lamps that require 3 VDC.
This parameter is indicated on the packaging of both the lighting device itself and the lamps intended for it.
The voltage applied to the lamp will depend directly on its type, therefore it is necessary to determine in advance with the lighting elements, since the connection and drawing up of the scheme of point devices has its own peculiarities.
If necessary, lower the voltage, it will be necessary to use a transformer. The operation of certain types of LED fixtures will require the installation of an additional device - the so-called driver.
If the types of lamps installed in the fixtures will be decided to be replaced by others having a different design, operation principle and supply voltage, then it is likely that the circuit of the electrical wiring will have to be changed.
Security level of
luminaires Spot lights can be open and closed - this depends on the location of their installation.
The open design of luminaires is suitable only for rooms with normal humidity, but they can not be installed in bathrooms, and even more so in the premises of a bath. In such devices, the lamp is not covered by the bubble, so moisture can significantly shorten the life of the prior or even cause a serious accident. To the open also it is possible to carry the majority of fixtures having rotary mechanisms - they too try not to use in premises with the raised humidity.
are required. For bathrooms, swimming pools and bath rooms, special waterproof lamps must be purchased.
To ensure that the lighting fixtures last a long time, there is no danger, they must be protected not only from moisture, but also from the effects of dust. Usually the degree of protection is indicated at the very prior and necessarily in its technical documentation. This is an IP index with two digits after it.
The first parameter will tell about the degree of protection from penetration of solid dust bodies:
- 0 × - this is a complete lack of protection;
- 1 × - the device is protected against fragments up to 50 mm in size;
- 2 × - speaks of the protection from 12 mm particles;
- 3 × - from particles up to 2.5 mm in size;
- 4 × - the maximum size is 1.0 mm;
- 5 × - partial penetration of fine dust
- 6 × - the device has a guaranteed protection against dust.
The second digit of the indicator will give the characteristic of the appliance for its protection against moisture:
- × 0 - the moisture resistance is completely absent;
- × 1 - the luminaire is protected against vertical dropping of water;
- × 2 - protection against drops falling at a small angle;
- × 3 - protection against droplets of splashes falling on the lamp at a large angle;
- × 4 - the luminaire is protected from splashes falling on it from any angle;
- × 5 - there is protection against jets of water;
- × 6 - the lamp is not afraid of the direct impact of a strong water flow;
- × 7 - the device can be briefly immersed in water;
- × 8 - the luminaire can be under water for a long time, for example, when it is installed in swimming pools.
What is important to know about waterproof luminaires?
If the installation of lighting in the bathroom is scanned, there are special requirements for the choice of appliances. For more details about waterproof luminaires for bathrooms , see the separate publication of our portal.
Preparing for and installing the
luminaires Installing these fixtures in a plasterboard ceiling requires some preparation. This process involves the purchase of the necessary materials and tools, if the latter are not in the house.
What is required for mounting
The set of materials includes the following items:
- Electrical cable for wiring and connection of lighting devices. Its length is chosen depending on the size of the room and the layout of the fixtures. The cable can be two-wire, but some types of fixtures require grounding of their housing - in these cases, three-wire wiring is used. Preference is given, of course, to copper. Usually, for lighting in a room, a section of 1.5 mm is sufficient.
- An insulating corrugated tube in which the cable will be protected from various influences. The length also varies depending on the length of the wiring.
- Terminals for connecting wires when connecting luminaires. These can be screw pads, spring terminals, or. And the best option is reusable clamping terminals of Vago. They, although more expensive, but not enough to save on the convenience of work and on the safety of the connections.
- Voltage transformer. It is required if halogen lamps designed for operation from 12 V are selected for installation. This device must correspond to the required power. Usually it is chosen with the expectation that its output power exceeds the total installed lamp power by at least 20 ÷ 25%.
- transformer is often required in the supply of spotlights. The current driver will be required when installing some models of LED downlights that operate under reduced voltage. This device simultaneously plays the role of both a step-down transformer-rectifier, and a current and voltage stabilizer - many LEDs are very sensitive to changes in the circuit parameters.
becomes an indispensable element. If the luminaires are connected in series, the driver must have a power margin for the normal operation of the entire circuit.
However, it should be noted that serial connection has one important disadvantage - if one of the luminaires fails, the entire circuit stops working. Therefore, it is recommended to perform parallel installation, but in this case you will have to purchase a separate driver for each lamp. Some models of luminaires are equipped with manufacturers own drivers, in which case they can be connected in parallel without any problems. In any case, when acquiring, always carefully read the technical documentation of the instruments.
- Dot lamps themselves. Their number is determined depending on the layout and size of the room. Usually, their installation is performed at a distance of 500 ÷ 1200 mm from each other.
Tools for installing spotlights
For convenient and quality installation of fixtures, the following tools are required:
- Electric drill or screwdriver for cutting holes in plasterboard.
- A drill bit for cutting holes at 60 ÷ 75 mm or an adjustable drill bit( "ballerina"), on which you can set the desired hole diameter.
|Illustration||Brief description of the operation|
| In marked places, using a wood drill or "balerinka", as in the illustration, nests are drilled with a diameter of several( 2 ÷ 3) millimeters more than the fitting size of the luminaire, but necessarily smaller than the outer diameter of the decorative flange that will close the hole. |
The work should be carried out with great care, gently, slowly, so as not to damage the cable and do not crumble the sheet of plasterboard.
| Further, through the hole, the ends or cable loops stretched out to the installation meter are pulled outward. |
If it is difficult to get the pieces, then they can be hooked with a crocheted wire.
|The next step is to strip the ends of the wires 5 ÷ 7 mm to insert them into the terminal.|
| It is very important to observe the correct connection of the wires, otherwise, when connected to the power supply, the luminaires can burn out, especially if they are connected in series. |
This is easy to observe, based on the color marking of conductors.
The blue color is always "working zero", yellow, green or yellow-green - "ground zero", and the color of the "phase" can be different. White, brown or red phase wires are more common, but this is not dogma.
If the lamp itself also has a color marking of the wires, it should also be observed.
Only the phase conductor must be opened in the circuit-breaker.
| After the ends of the cable are cleaned, they are inserted from one side of the terminal and clamped with a screwdriver. |
If spring terminals are used( only for solid wires or when installing a special tip on the multi-core), the wire is inserted until a secure clamp is provided.
| More convenient - reusable crimp terminals Vago with a locking lever. |
They are universal and can be reusable.
The wires are inserted into the cleaned area before the insulation, and then the lever snaps into place until it stops.
| In the same way, the wires coming from the luminaire are connected to the terminals. |
Often there are devices that are not equipped with wires. In this case, the power wires exiting the overhead space can be attached directly to the terminals of the cartridge, as shown in the figure.
However, it is more convenient, perhaps, to connect the wire segments to the light first, and then - also as described above, through the terminal - if the dismantling is necessary, the work will be simplified.
But the twist, even with reliable insulation, should be avoided - in the space above the curtain ceiling, it is difficult to control their "behavior" - and it does not exclude sparking, heating, etc.
|In the connected form, the spotlight looks like this.|
| On the built-in spotlights there are special stoppers-"antennae", which return to the horizontal position with the springs. |
With this simple "lock" the luminaire will be fixed to the gypsum cardboard cloth.
|Most models are installed directly in the socket, cut in the plasterboard surface.|
| Other models( usually those that are suitable for a stretch ceiling) include a special ring that is framed by a carved hole. |
This is quite a sensible solution - the gypsum board on the cut edge when installing or removing the fixtures will not crumble, and the device itself will be securely seated in the socket.
When installing the "antennae", located behind the decorative lining of the luminaire, compressed, the lamp is carefully inserted into the prepared hole.
After installation, the stoppers themselves unclamp and securely hold the lamp on the surface of the plasterboard ceiling.
|As a result, the luminaire must gently, tightly, without the slightest sag, stand on the place prepared for it.|
- Roulette and long ruler.
- Indicator for determining the phase of the voltage.
- Screwdriver set
- Wire cutters, pliers - if it is planned to press the connecting sleeves.
- Insulation tape or heat shrinkable tubing of the correct diameter
- A sharp knife or stripper for stripping wires before connecting them or a protective device.
Mounting of spotlights on the hypo-cardboard ceiling
In order not to be mistaken in the amount of material to be purchased, it is necessary to determine in advance the location of the fixtures, and also to plan the cable routing for them, it is necessary to compose your own or find a ready-made scheme.
- The first thing that is done before the beginning of marking and installation of cabling is to mount a frame from a metal profile or a wooden beam for a gypsum board ceiling.
Here it is necessary to consider what kind of fixtures will be installed - overhead or recessed, as their installation differs somewhat among themselves.
For example, for false light fixtures to the ceiling or to a frame, a rigid base must be fixed to which the panel of the overhead model will be mounted and screwed through the gypsum board.
- The frame lath can be used to fasten cabling to it, which is best placed immediately in a corrugated plastic pipe.
- The tube is fixed to the crate on special brackets or screwed onto the plastic clips in several places, and the lengths or loops of the cable with a length of 200-300 mm, to which the fixtures will be connected in the places specified for their installation, are left in a free state.
- For ease of installation of lighting devices and for aesthetic reasons, they are located at the same distance from each other - usually it is 500 ÷ 1200 mm. Later, the cable loops will be passed through the holes cut out for them in the plasterboard and let into the outside of the ceiling.
- Next, on the crate, the gypsum boards are fixed, on which, using a tape measure and a ruler, focusing on the connection line of the sheets, the places where the fixtures will be installed are marked. At the same time, it is very important not to allow a very common mistake of novice electricians, when the intended hole suddenly falls on the guide of the frame.
- It should also be taken into account that there should be a distance between the center of the future circle for installing the luminaire and the wall, which is not more than 550 ÷ 600 mm.
- If a transformer is installed in the circuit, it is installed above the suspended ceiling in the inter-ceiling space, fixing on the elements of the crate or evenjust laying it on top of the sheet.
transformer 1 - overlap;
2 - gypsum plasterboard suspended ceiling;
3 - supply cable to the lamp;
4 - clips( clamps) that hold the cable on the floor;
5 - transformer or driver.
- All connections of wires that remain above the ceiling surface must be insulated. The best option is the use of modern Vago terminals. If it is planned to twist, then press it into a copper sleeve, and then qualitatively isolate it with a heat shrink tube or an insulating tape. Do not leave naked contacts or connections.
- It is very important to remember that no matter how the wiring layout was drawn up, it is not recommended to carry a diagonal cable, as in the event of a malfunction it will be much more difficult to detect it.
- If a complex wiring diagram is chosen, then a junction box is used for it, into which the main power cable is fed, and the remaining branches are made from it.
The installation of an overhead spot light fixture, after fixing the plasterboard on the crate, is similar, but with some features.
- . When installing the overhead luminaire, the hole in the plasterboard false ceiling should not be made large, since the technical part of the luminaire will not be inserted into it. It will only serve to pull the cable loop to the ceiling surface. The hole is also made in a certain place, where a rigid base( a platform or a piece of timber) is installed above the suspended ceiling to fix the fixtures.
- Further, the elongated cable is cut, its ends are cleaned, and then, they are switched in the terminal.
- The contact wires of the luminaire with stripped ends are also connected in the terminal according to the wiring diagram, observing the color coding of the wire( phase-zero).
- surface-mounted luminaire Each manufacturer is provided with a special bracket( mounting plate)( item 2), which must be fixed from the outside of the suspended ceiling to a rigid base. It should be noted that in different models of devices such brackets can have different designs - but it is usually easy to understand with this.
- The excess cable( item 4) is threaded into the hole so that it does not interfere with the mounting of the bracket.
- Next, the bracket is screwed through the suspended ceiling to a rigid base.
- Next, it installs and secures the luminaire itself. Depending on the model, it can be screwed on both sides with screws to the body( item 1) with a lampshade( item 3), open or with the use of rubber seals, or even the plafond itself can be screwed into the mounting bracket.
After the installation work on the cable routing and installation of the luminaires, the wires are connected to the switch( phase with phase, and zero with zero).this work needs to be done according to the scheme drawn up. And it remains to turn on the supply voltage to the room to check the operation of the installed lighting.
To finish the article follows an important observation: if there is no practical experience in the installation of electrical devices with complex wiring, it is better to entrust this process to a specialist. High tension amateurs do not like!