Repair of the foundation. The reasons for failure. Restoration brick bases and wooden structures
Table of contents
- 1 The reasons for the destruction of the foundation
2 A description of some types of work
- 2.1 brick structure
- 2.2 The structure of wood
- 3 Output
In any construction of the base it is the most important part, since this structural element carries most of the load and protects the structure from moisture penetration from the ground. But sometimes due to the impact of unfavorable factors, and because of the long period of operation required to repair the foundation - the hands that work can be done only if you know all the basic nuances process. In this article we look at some solutions to the problem.
Cracks - the first sign of occurrence of problems with the base
The reasons for the destruction of the foundation
Let us examine what factors have a negative impact on the design:
|subsidence||If used melkozaglublenny design variant, it does not exclude the situation in which the soil during freezing-thawing prosyadet.
Often, there are cases when the lower part of the base tempted groundwater, leading to deformation of the system and may cause destruction of individual sections
|Popping foundation||Such troubles occur solely melkozaglublennymi foundations and occur when the ground is frozen and pushes disposed underground construction upwards. That's why such options are used infrequently, especially if your area of winter cold|
|frost heave||If the base is not very strong, when freezing the soil may break through the side construction that cause cracking and shift in individual sections with respect to the plane of the main system. It is worth noting that similar situations are most often found in old buildings, where the material is already weakened and began to break the surface layer|
|overturning base||Most often this is due to the fact that the ground water the soil is washed with the outer or inner side and at the side plane of no support. This is the most dangerous situation, as it can cause the destruction of the entire structure|
May occur, and other causes of problems.
Before you begin to remove them, you need to understand the issue, to prevent the emergence of such trouble later.
Processes occurring in the soil, often cause structural failure
A description of some types of work
We will explain the most common situations and how to fix the problem properly. Much depends on the material from which built the house - brick or wood. It is on this basis we divide all the work.
Repair of brick house foundation begins with checking how fast the process of destruction and subsidence. To do this, the crack is glued paper tape, which is checked daily, if for a few days it burst - hence, an urgent need to begin to strengthen the design to avoid large problems.
The first way to solve the problem - the saturation of the soil under the base of cement mortar.
foundation repair technology in this case is as follows:
- Near the construction pit dug inclined 35 degrees to the surface. The depth should be such that the lower part of the stone was located in the bed or near the pillow of crushed stone. It is important that you free up space, and provided access to the grounds on which the main load;
- Further, the excavated hole is inserted into the tube diameter of 150-200 mm, which would be carried through the carburizing. To work preparing grout which is filled up until the soil is fully impregnated with (i.e. after filling pipe composition will not decrease for at least 2 h);
The saturation of the soil cement leads to the ground under the foundation is much more reliable and to stop the destruction of structures
- After 48 hours, the procedure is repeated to provide the best possible result. If necessary, such work can be carried out in several areas of the system. Such a repair strip foundation will be effective in cases where problems have arisen due to the weakening of the soil or groundwater leaching;
- After finishing work again for cracks glued paperIf within two weeks she broke, then you need to use more radical methods of work.
Repair of bursting of the foundation can be made by drilling and the construction itself and strengthen its soil and cement mortar
A more drastic method is the following variant strengthening base:
- Around the whole structure is excavated trench width 20 and a depth of at least 35 centimeters. If the land is not very hard, it is possible to strengthen the wall with the help of boards, it is important that the edges do not crumble;
Sometimes a big problem in the form of the destroyed areas are found when digging trenches
- Further, the surface of the drilled holeWhose diameter should be 10 mm, and a depth of about 5 cm less than the thickness. To work with a drill perforator is used an appropriate length, the tool must be quite powerful, since the work associated with high loads;
Specialists use equipment with a focus to facilitate the work
- Then, in the pre-prepared holes clogged reinforcement pieces diameter of 12 mm, they should act on the surface, by about 50-100 mm. The next step - is constructed on the surface of the reinforcing belt, which can be either welded or lock the binding wire. It is important that the design was reliable, because it depends on it the strength of the final result;
In the construction does not skimp on materials, it is better to achieve too much than not enough reliability
- After the shuttering is installed if necessary and manufactured casting, for which the brand is used M200 concrete filled with small or medium-sized gravel. It is important to the whole workflow in one step, to maximize structural strength;
- Such a reinforced concrete ring allows you to distribute the load on the old and new part of the foundation and resolve issues with destruction and subsidence.
If you have problems with only one hand, such a workflow is only there.
This reduces the volume of work.
Repair pier foundation in a similar way with the difference that you need to do the formwork around each leg, and then pour the concrete. This makes it possible to increase the carrying capacity of elements at times.
The structure of wood
Very common are cases when it is necessary to repair the old wooden house foundation. Most often the base in such poor condition that needed a complete reconstruction.
The process is as follows:
- The first step is to maximally facilitate the design: Remove all the furniture from the structure. Further it is necessary to break through in the foundation holes for the location of the metal channels, which should fitted with a step and a half to two meters, depending on the reliability of structures and features of its construction;
If the lower crown rotted, it is better to do it right in the hole, so that the construction was based on the strong timber
- With regard to the raising of the design, there are two main options. The first - the use of hand jacks, they will need quite a lot at work should constantly monitor the uniformity of the process, not to the structure of the roll. The second option involves the use of special equipment, according to the work will take a few minutes, but you have to pay professionals providing similar services;
Hand-held devices can pick up the house, but it takes a lot of energy
- After lifting Always ensure that the structure is stable and will not fall on you at work. Next, a trench is dug desired width and depth, it is filled with gravel and theft of the reinforcing frame set of valves;
- Pouring the foundation is no different from the usual work of this kind. It is necessary to design to withstand at least 3 weeks to ensure that concrete is scored strength characteristics. The surface and waterproofing it drops a box at home.
The second solution to the problem - repair of screw foundation piles, this kind of work has the following features:
- First of all it is necessary to raise the houseIt is exactly the same as described above, therefore, to elaborate on this process, we will not;
- Next, screw pilesTheir number and length calculated according to the structural features and the depth of freezing ground. The elements are arranged on the outer side of the old base and the like can be wrapped using a special equipment or manually;
- After screwing the upper edge of the elements is aligned, If necessary, the protruding elements are cut to the desired height, it is important to achieve a minimum difference;
- Further it is necessary to weld a frame of open U-shaped tube, To form a solid foundation on which the house will be installed later. The size and thickness of the product should be sufficient to withstand, without any prejudice to the reliability;
- Application of protective anti-corrosive coating - an important part of the work for the protection of metal components, use only high-quality formulations for these works.
Pile construction much cheaper concrete base
Of course, when a renovation of apartments - the foundation is not there as such, but in the private sector you have to give this part of the building very close attention.
Naturally, the repair of the wooden house foundation can be carried out by analogy with a brick, raise it is not necessary. The most important thing - to choose the option to strengthen the design, in which you will achieve the best results. Videos in this report will help you understand the work better, and if you have questions, ask them in the comments below.