To date, there are several types of bulbs that can be used to illuminate the greenhouse structures. At the same time, they all differ in their characteristics, have a different price range and lifetime.
- Which greenhouse light needs: optimal lighting Greenhouse lighting for
- plants: how to choose the right bulb
- LED lighting for greenhouses: the advantages and disadvantages
- LED floodlights for greenhouses: how to accommodate
- Typesluminaires for greenhouses( video)
What light greenhouse needs: optimal lighting for
plants for agricultural crops is very important good soil, air and heatsunlight. It is thanks to the sun that they can grow and develop. But what if the warm sun is a rare visitor in the region of residence?Or you want to grow vegetables and herbs not only in summer, but also in winter. In winter, when the day is short, the plants need to have an extra light. In this case, the only solution is to equip the greenhouse with artificial light. It is necessary to create the most convenient conditions for plants.
First of all, artificial light should not completely replace the natural light, it is necessary to extend the date for the plant.
Short day cultures require up to 12 light hours, a plant long for up to 16 hours. You can not cover the greenhouse all 24 hours a day - the plants simply can not sustain intensive growth. The stems will begin to weaken, the flowering may fall off, and the fruit will not be able to ripen as it should. Plants need rest at least 6 hours a day.
When lighting it is important to consider that fruit vegetables require more light and time to ripen than plants that are grown for stems and leaves( dill, parsley, basil).
When installing lighting with your own hands in a greenhouse, it is best to use a light reflecting lamp for a GSP, it will give more light than a conventional light bulb.
Greenhouse fixtures: how to choose a lamp
To date, the choice of the lighting market is very large. When choosing bulbs for greenhouses, you need to be guided by many nuances.
- Manufacturer .A well-known company producing lamps, inspires more confidence than cheap Chinese counterfeits. A well-known brand gives a guarantee on its products, although the price of lamps is much higher than that of Chinese models.
- Power .It depends on it, how economically it will be this or that lighting in the greenhouse.
- Light spectrum .Depending on which spectrum prevails in the lamps, their light affects the plant differently. Blue - the plant grows faster and grows stronger, green and yellow - reduce the rate of photosynthesis, red - ideal during flowering and fruiting plants, UV rays help plants produce useful substances and vitamins.
- Material .It is important that the lamps are made of a harmless material.
Among the huge choice of lamps - fluorescent, mercury, incandescent, sodium, metal halide, induction, LED( fitolampy) - it is difficult to make a decisive choice.
For industrial greenhouses or greenhouses, sodium lamps are most commonly used.
sodium lamps can be divided into several types: HPS - Sodium Arc Tube Light, DNaS - arc sodium diffusing and DNaZ - arc sodium mirror. DNaT have good light output, so their application has a positive effect on plant growth.
In certain areas of large greenhouses and greenhouses, you can install LED light bulbs. Calculation of the number of lamps and their location should be handled by a specialist.
Light bulbs are used to illuminate small greenhouses - LED-lamps allow choosing the light spectrum depending on the stage of plant growth. LED-lamps come in several variations - separate lamps, LED panels and LED strips. LED backlight tape is very easy to install with your own hands, however, during installation, strong bends should be avoided, diodes can be damaged.
It will be enough for small greenhouses to install the simplest fluorescent fluorescent lamps.
Greenhouse lighting, even from inexpensive lamps, will draw on a fairly large amount. The lighting should not be saved, the maturation of the crop depends on the correct choice of lamps.
LED lighting for greenhouses: advantages and disadvantages
Phytolamps( also known as LED lamps) are gaining popularity with lighting in greenhouses. Despite their only drawback - a high price, they have a number of positive qualities. In LED lamps, in addition to LEDs, electronic control is used. That is why LED lamps can produce a wide range of colors.
LED lamp advantages:
- Low power consumption;
- Long service life;
- Optimal emission spectrum for growing plants;
- Lamps do not emit heat, so it can be used at all stages of plant development;
- Can work at low voltage, there is the possibility of connecting to solar panels;
- Light-emitting diodes are not heated, it means that it is possible to place the lamp as closely as possible to the cultivated crops and not be afraid that the leaves will get burned;
- Not afraid of changes in temperature and high humidity.
Unlike other lamps, a phytoscreen does not need an additional light reflector. Diodes have a built-in lens that allows you to concentrate the light flux in the right direction.
LED-lamps are quite effective - they produce the necessary luminous flux for growing plants, while they are harmless to humans and crops. The materials from which the LED-backlight is made do not contain harmful substances and mercury.
It is recommended to buy LED lamps of famous brands only in specialized stores. In order not to run into a fake, ask for a certificate of quality and a warranty card for the goods. When buying, it is important to consider that a 5 W lamp is more effective than a luminaire consisting of 5 elements of 1 W.
LED spotlights for greenhouses: how to place
Different types of plants require different lighting and heating. When growing plants, you can change the duration of a light day, depending on the stages of development - flowering, fruiting, ripening. For some plants, you need to set an individual mode of illumination. To do this, you need to make a schedule, by which you need to "turn on / off" the lamp. Also, you can install a control system with a timer, for a given schedule, he will independently adjust the lighting.
Violation of the lighting regime for plants of a short day can lead to their death, and vice versa.
Before installing the fixtures, you need to find out which lamps are preferable to use for certain plant species. Since the LEDs do not heat up, they can be placed almost right next to the plants. The optimum height is up to 30 cm. For this purpose, special pendant LED lighting fixtures are installed at the required height. The center of the greenhouse will be illuminated better than the edges, so it is recommended to plant plants that love light.
The LED light can be made by hand. To do this, you need small panels, red and blue ICE tape, power supply. LED lighting fixtures can not be directly connected to the 220 W network, otherwise all the diodes will burn. To convert AC to DC and transform the voltage to 12 W use a special power supply with a stabilizer.
To determine the required number of luminaires, you need to carry out a lighting calculation - this can be done by engineers or shop assistants who understand such subtleties.
Types of fixtures for greenhouses( video)
To a greater extent, greenhouses are translucent structures, but sometimes the plants growing in them do not always have enough sunlight. In this case, it is advisable to install a lamp or an LED strip that will replace the light of the sun and prolong the daylight for plants.