The greenhouse is a convenient device for obtaining early harvest or growing crops all year round. It is important to consider a number of nuances: how to properly arrange or organize the cultivation of different types of vegetables. It should be remembered that each culture is individual according to the requirements of the microclimate.
- Some tips: how to plant plants in a greenhouse
- Neighborhood of plants in a greenhouse
- Optimal conditions for planting plants in a greenhouse
- Who eats plants in a greenhouse
- Rules for planting plants in a greenhouse( video)
Some tips: how to plant plants in a greenhouse
Plants should be considered in advance, before the construction of the greenhouse. It is the number of crops and their location that determine the size of the greenhouse. In addition, you need to take into account and place for comfortable work. In addition to the shelves you need a special passage - the tracks for easy movement.
Proper planting will reduce the chance of shading low plantations with higher plants.
There are two options for placing seedlings when growing vegetables in a greenhouse: on a bed or in pots. Each method has its own characteristics, but the correctness of planting depends on how the seedlings will grow, as well as getting good harvests. First, it is worth taking into account the sides of the world. Perhaps to determine this, you will need a compass.
Landing planning depending on the sides of the light :
- Long-range arrangement of vegetables from the north to the south. Such a landing will allow each plant to receive the right amount of solar energy. In this case, high crops should not fall in the shadow of low species.
- An east-west landing applies to tall plants. Because of the abundance of foliage, not all greens feed on the sun. But for this location during sunrise, the lower tiers will also warm up.
- The use of the southern slope is relevant if the land on the site is uneven. So the rays of the sun fall at an angle and warm up a maximum of plants.
Often when planning planting, vertical planting is used. Do not confine yourself to just one plane, you can install special hangers. If everything is properly thought out, then such an arrangement will be quite profitable.
Vertical landing systems :
- The top floor should be seedlings in pots. It is she who needs a lot of light. As the crops grow, the plants will drop lower.
- The middle and lower locations should be given to adult saplings or containers with fertilized soil in which young bushes are planted.
- The place under the shelves should be used as a warehouse, since the sun does not penetrate at all.
The optimum depth of the shelves for vertical placement is 40-50 cm. You can use a terraced planting scheme. This option includes on one side racks with seedlings, and on the other - a terrace. So usually only one type of culture is cultivated in a greenhouse. The design of the greenhouse itself also directly affects the placement of seedlings.
Options for construction of greenhouses :
- A two-level greenhouse is used for tall plants or even small bushes and trees. For proper use of the area, the highest crops should be planted in the middle of the greenhouse.
- A wide greenhouse with arches is used for medium growth or low vegetables. Then plants are planted along the walls, and a passage is made in the middle.
- Rectangular greenhouse is used for growing all crops. It is optimal to arrange several narrow beds with paths for movement between them.
The width of the tracks must be at least 40 cm. This ensures comfortable movement. If you use a special wheelbarrow, then the track should be made a width of 90 cm.
Neighborhood of plants in the greenhouse
Perfect planting means using a greenhouse for one type of culture. Then the whole microclimate is adjusted to a single plant. This makes it possible to get a good harvest. After growing a single crop, you can plant another one.
Replacing one species with another helps to avoid the formation of pathogenic microflora in the soil, which is characteristic of a single culture.
The change of crops involves the disinfection of the soil or the replacement of the fertile soil layer. It is worth paying attention to the very design of the greenhouse. Disinfection is carried out with a raster of potassium permanganate. In each hole it is necessary to fill this mixture. But do not get involved in this way.
Plant replacement options :
- First you need to plant the most harmless species - legumes;
- Next, you need to use plants that occupy an average niche for depletion of soils - asparagus, radish, salad, spices;
- Finally, plants are left that maximally use the land - tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers.
Not everyone has the opportunity to install several greenhouses, so often plant a number of cultures that are similar in care. For each plant, beds in a width of 90 cm are defined. The distance between them should be 60 cm. The combination of similar vegetables can not be separated. Cultures that can not get along together should be completely protected from each other not only by accommodation, but also by a wall made of polyethylene film or plywood.
Optimal conditions for planting plants in a greenhouse
Proper construction of a greenhouse is very important, but in addition, it is necessary to create comfortable conditions for plants. It is necessary to provide the right care for each species. Plant crops in the prepared greenhouse. It will be well equipped with a heating system. She very much helps in the spring and early summer, when the nights are cold, and the temperature is unstable. In the autumn, there is no sense in heating the culture, as they are already ripening.
For eggplants, peppers and cucumbers, you can equip a warm patch to get an early harvest of your favorite vegetables.
For this, shelters made of fabric or polyethylene film are used. After all, weakened at the beginning, young plants can not produce crops at all. Vegetables that have grown, more resistant to an unstable microclimate.
Before planting, it is necessary to clean the soil and fertilize it. The ground must be loose and moist. The main thing is to saturate it with oxygen. It is also important to decontaminate the soil.
- Burned sulfur;
- Glowing solution of sulfur and kerosene;
You need to take care of vegetables regularly with the help of additional fertilizing. Fertilizers for each plant species are selected individually. Tomatoes like phosphate and calcium, aubergines - nitrogen. The soil for cucumbers is well fertilized with manure.
It is also important to regularly pollinate plants. The bees do not fly into the greenhouse, so this procedure must be done manually. In addition, it is worth taking care of watering, airing, loosening the soil and fertilizing plants.
Who eats plants in the greenhouse
High humidity, a closed room, comfortable temperature is convenient not only for vegetables, but for pests. What a beetle eats plants and how to deal with it must be known to every vegetable gardener. Often tasting with vegetable beetles makes them unsuitable for consumption and reduces their nutritional value.
There is a pest for every culture. So the main pest of tomatoes is caterpillar caterpillars.
The complexity of destroying beetles and caterpillars is that they are not visible during the day, but pests reproduce at high speed. But if you find the first problems with pests, you need to start an active fight against them. To begin with, you need to get rid of all the weeds in the beds, so that the beetles lose any food. It is also necessary to resort to other measures that need to be taken in the complex.
Preventive and direct methods of pest management :
- Periodic loosening of the soil;
- Dredging the ground;
- Assembly of beetles and caterpillars manually.
You can also resort to the use of biologics. This can help get rid of pests and keep the crop. Also, such remedies prevent wilting. Vegetable growers in Belarus use irradiators, carbon dioxide or ultraviolet to fight beetles and caterpillars. During the treatment of crops, it is necessary to suspend their irrigation and fertilizer.
Rules for planting plants in the greenhouse( video)
The greenhouse allows you to receive any crops year round: exotic, medicinal, aquarium or traditional, to which all are accustomed. But it is important to understand the planting of different plants and know the requirements that are put forward for each culture. This will be the key to getting a good harvest.