Evacuation ladders are robust. They are the most reliable and safe. During a fire, earthquake and other emergencies, they provide a safe exit from the building. Such a ladder should be provided in the plan of the drawing, on which the building is erected. Its location depends on the design and size of the building. There are certain norms. Using them, the installation of stairs. The requirements are strictly taken into account in the construction.
- What are the evacuation stairs in public buildings
- What should be the height of the emergency stairs
- stairs slope on escape routes: the basic requirements
- internal evacuation stairs in
- public buildings Evacuation exterior stairsmetal
- width of evacuation staircase for different types of buildings
- requirements evacuation stairs of the third type
- metal evacuation outsideestnitsy: types of designs
- device evacuation stairs: trehmarshevaya design
- As mounted evacuation staircase( video)
- Proper evacuation staircase( photo examples)
What are the evacuation staircases Evacuation stairs mandatory design in public buildings
, Which should be in a public building. In multi-storey houses, they are simply necessary. They provide safe descent and exit from the building during a fire, and in other emergency situations.
At the design stage, every detail of the ladder is thought out.
Evacuation ladder set:
- in schools and kindergartens;
- In factories and industrial plants;
- In multi-storey buildings of various types.
With the help of such constructions, visitors, employees or tenants of the house can safely leave the premises without endangering their lives. Another evacuation ladders serve as an exit, if there is no separate black exit from the building.
If the building has more than three floors, then such a ladder must be included in the plan of the drawing. Without its presence, the structure can not be operated - this is contrary to the rules of fire safety.
What should be the height of the
escape stairs? The type of the ladder and the building itself determines its height. The height is regulated by the technical regulations, in which all dimensions are prescribed. When designing and erecting a building, it is necessary to comply with all regulatory requirements and take into account GOST.
The height of the ladder is from 1.9 m( in light) and more. Evacuation exits in the technical floors should be a height of 1.8 m.
The height of the ladder is composed of the number of steps and risers. Their number is also regulated by norms.
The step should have a height of not more than 0.22 m. This requirement of SNiP must be observed during construction.
stairs slope on escape routes: the basic requirements
Slope marches for different ladders is a certain value. In the above-ground floors, it has a value of 1: 2.In children's pre-school institutions, the slope of the staircase on evacuation routes should not exceed 45 degrees. And for other public buildings - 60 degrees.
The optimal slope of the ladder on the evacuation routes is 1: 1.It can be larger, but should not exceed 1: 2.
The permitted ladder slope is calculated by the general formula.
Internal evacuation ladders in public buildings
Internal evacuation ladders are used in public buildings of various types and purposes. Make designs of metal or concrete. Reinforced concrete, concrete or metal construction is resistant to fire.
It is forbidden to use wood, slippery and toxic materials for the manufacture of internal evacuation ladders.
These stairs are covered with refractory material - paint.
Internal staircases have a simple design. They should have smooth and comfortable steps.
There are two types of internal ladders:
- Installed in a staircase;
- Have an open design.
Internal staircases must have good throughput, which depends on the width of the march. It is designed for a certain number of people. The width should be not less than 0,7 m. And the height of the step is not more than 22 cm, the width of the step is up to 25 cm.
Movement of people in a fire can be carried out on staircases in which evacuation ladders are installed. This staircase is concrete.
Evacuation external ladders made of metal
Evacuation external staircases have a solid fixed structure that allows the passage of precipitation. Snow, mud, sand, water should not accumulate on the steps of such stairs.
For railings use a handrail. They are made of stainless steel, metal pipes. The construction of the stairs is covered with an anti-corrosion material - a special paint.
Materials used in the manufacture of emergency escape stairs:
- Beams are made of profiles or pipes( steel);
- For steps and handrails, sheets of PVL, PRN and reinforcing bars are suitable.
Expanded-drawn sheets( PVL) have a lattice structure that has the ability to self-cleaning. During operation, there should be no ice on them.
During emergencies, people forget about precautions while descending the stairs. Therefore, they should not be slippery or dirty so that a person does not fall during the descent. The metal steps from the exhaust plates are blowing, due to their lattice structure. Because of this, the precipitation does not remain on the surface of the steps.
Public multi-storey buildings must have several evacuation exits( from different ends) that lead to metal external staircases.
Width of evacuation ladder for different types of buildings
The width of the evacuation ladder for various buildings is prescribed in SNiP.It should be optimal to ensure a safe exit from the building to a certain number of people.
The width of the evacuation ladder should not be less than the established standard.
For different types of buildings the width of the stairs is different and can be:
- 135 mm;
- 120 mm;
- 90 mm.
The first width of the stairs is used for buildings if the number of people on the floor is more than 200. Such evacuation ladders are installed in theaters, clubs, And large hospitals.
Ladders with a width of 120 mm are installed for other public buildings. These stairs are not designed to evacuate a large number of people. A ladder with a width of 90 mm is designed for other cases.
The width of the ladder must be not less than the width of the march: the same or greater.
Requirements for evacuation stairs of the third type
The evacuation ladders make high demands. Their design should have a convenient and safe device. Types of stairs are different, therefore, the requirements for them differ. A drawing is used for their production.
External evacuation ladders must necessarily have fences to protect people from falling from a height.
The TTK( typical process map) is used for the installation of metal stairs. Installation of the entire structure is done manually by it. Then a ladder test and a strength test are carried out.
Mandatory requirements for emergency escape staircases of the third type:
- Can only be marching;
- Distance from the window to the stairs is 1 meter;
- The width of the tread is 250 mm;
- The step height must be no more than 220 mm;
- Ladders must have fences with a height of 1.2 m;
- There should be a gap between marches and handrails of fences - not less than 7.5 cm.
Periodically the evacuation ladders are inspected and the estimate for repairs is drawn up. It says that it is necessary to replace and in what quantity.
Metal evacuation outdoor ladders: types of structures
Metal evacuation external staircases can be of complex or simple design. The design of the ladder is a crucial and important moment, therefore drawings are used for its execution, taking into account the size of the structure and the building itself.
Evacuation external staircases are divided into the following types:
- On strings;
- Frameless at the hands;
- Fire from metal oblique.
Any external ladder should be not only safe and perform its functions, but also look aesthetically pleasing.
Evacuation ladder device: three-mast construction
Evacuation ladders consist of a certain number of steps, a platform, fences.
The fences must be of an optimal height and not less than 1.2 m. The fence can only be present on one side. And as a fence of the second side, then stands the wall.
Three-ladder ladder should include from three to sixteen steps. Such constructions include in their composition the alternation of marches. Three-march includes three marches, which are located within a single storey.
The three-piece construction consists of the following elements:
- Two fastened steps;
- Parallel beams.
Beams are located at a certain angle, which is prescribed in the requirements of GOST and SNiPa.
The evacuation path can use the roof of the building. But, in this case, the roof area should be exploited and specially equipped.
Evacuation ladder( video)
An evacuation ladder is a structure that is operated during a fire, smoke, earthquake. Therefore, they are designed strictly according to requirements. Stairs are tested for strength and periodic inspections for suitability. The main requirement: they must be safe and withstand a large flow of people.