Cellars and cellars in each house are used in completely different ways. But at the same time they are united by one - for their normal operation it is necessary to provide a basement room with a convenient entrance, which implies the presence of a ladder. It seems to be quite an easy task, but it's not so simple. It must be borne in mind that any staircase should be built taking into account certain requirements, as well as compliance with safety standards.
- We go into the darkest corners: a staircase to the basement
- A staircase to the basement from the house: a variety of constructions
- A staircase to the basement with our own hands: drawings and what they include
- Metal stairs to the basementFrom the house: installation features
- Concrete staircase to the basement with your own hands: advice on the erection of
- Stairway to the basement of the garage with your own hands: what you need to take into account
- Construction of stairs to the basement( video)
- Comfortable staircase in(Photo of variants)
We go to the darkest corners: a staircase to the basement
. When assembling a ladder, it must be remembered that it must be safe, convenient, harmoniously integrated into the interior and at the same timeDo not take up much space.
- How often will the basement be used, and accordingly, the staircase;
- Will large, heavy items be carried?
- How much the ladder will be exposed to external factors and where is the main entrance to it - inside or outside the house;
- What is the basement area relative to the location of the erected structure;
- At what parameters will it be comfortable to use it;
- How should the staircase look if it leads to the first and then to the second floor in order not to disturb the stylistic design of the dwelling;
- How much finance is required for such work.
As for the size of the structure, it should be about 90 cm in width. This is necessary to make it easy to descend on it and two people can cross if necessary.
The opening must be free, but the clearance is such that the foot does not have a "desire" to go down there.
The width of the step can be 25-35 cm. If they are larger, there will be inconvenience when lifting, and if less - then it will be dangerous to go down. The step height can be from 12 to 22 cm.
The slope for the road to the basement needs to be selected within 25-75 degrees. But this factor is affected by the length of the ladder itself.
It should be understood that the free area of the room depends on the degree of inclination of the ladder. The smaller the slope, the more free space and vice versa.
Stairway to the basement from the house: varieties of the
The options, which can be a staircase, leading to the cellar or cellar is not so much. This is due to the fact that such a structure must be subject to stringent requirements, which are related to the peculiarities of the structure of the premises.
What kind of stairs can there be? Consider three main types of these structures:
- Marching are the simplest ladders. They are easy to make with your own hands, since this design does not contain any turns and is a straight line. True, it takes a lot of space for her.
- With pad - as a rule, it is used for "P" or "G" -shaped construction. Its plus in the opportunity to take a short break during the ascent. But at the same time it takes up a lot of space, so it is not suitable for small rooms. And the big width because of one more span sometimes happens unnecessary.
- Screw construction - the most compact version, but not as user-friendly as the previous ones. The steps of such a ladder, as a rule, are narrow and steep, which can make it difficult to carry large objects.
In order to maximally reduce the size of the basement ladder, you can use the tread stairs.
As for the material from which the stairs are made, they can be:
- Wooden is an extremely undesirable option. The basement rooms, as a rule, are not heated, respectively, the humidity of the air is constantly high. It is this that can cause the appearance of fungus or mold on the structure and subsequently lead to its inoperability.
- Metal - an excellent option for a basement ladder. Such a construction is quite simple in installation, it is not afraid of moisture, it serves for a long time, does not require large financial expenses.
- Concrete - quietly withstand any atmospheric phenomena, so this ladder can be safely placed even from the street. But the construction will be cumbersome and will put additional stress on the walls. Most often used in technical rooms or garages.
Staircase to the basement with your own hands: drawings and that they include
Regardless of what type, and from what will be made the design, before starting work you need to draw a draft of the ladder march. This is necessary in order to correctly calculate the size of the future ladder.
In this drawing, the following are generally reflected:
- Height of the ladder and steps;
- Width of steps and entire ladder;
- Size of the ladder march;
- Height of the lumen.
Using the drawing, you can calculate the length of the ladder if it is unknown.
In order to do this, you need to draw a straight angle on the graph paper, given the scale. Next, with the protractor mark the slope of the ladder and draw a line. Ruler calculate the resulting length.
Metal staircase to the basement from the house: mounting features
The ladder made of metal structures has proved to be the most durable, comfortable and durable. But at the same time it is more difficult to mount than wooden, and metal is subject to corrosion.
If rust spots are visible on the material prior to commencement of work, they must be removed by special treatment. Moreover, after installing the metal ladder, it will not be superfluous to apply several layers of enamel or paint on the structure.
It is possible to erect a ladder into the basement made of metal with the help of channel bars. For this you need:
- Metal channels;
- Metal sheets with a thickness of 1 ml;
- Cement mortar with crushed stone for concreting the substrate;
- Angles of 5 cm for the steps;
- Corrosion protection or paint.
After making all calculations, the channels and the necessary pieces of metal are cut. Then, using a welding machine, you need to connect the resulting pieces to the corners to form the frame. Extra rushes and irregularities are removed by the Bulgarian. Everything is treated with an anti-corrosive compound.
Further, the ladder is attached to the cellar. At the place where the ladder will be located, a small concrete foundation is made about 15-20 cm deep. The lower edge of the ladder is installed in a previously dug pit, filled with crushed stone and poured with concrete.
In the end, it remains only to cut the steps and solder them to the frame. Then remove all the extra scars and rushes. Apply an anti-corrosion agent again. A metal staircase to the basement is ready.
Concrete staircase to the basement with your own hands: advice on the erection of
A concrete ladder leading to the basement is the most reliable option. Such a design will withstand all kinds of loads and ensure the safety of movement. This ladder is not afraid of corrosion and its peculiarity in an extremely long operational period.
Its shortcomings include fairly expensive cash costs for materials and a large amount of time necessary for the construction of such a structure.
Due to the fact that the concrete staircase is an integral structure, it will be almost impossible to change anything after its installation. That is why it is necessary to make all calculations as accurately as possible and to double-check everything several times.
The whole process of erecting a staircase from concrete to the basement consists of the following:
- A wooden formwork is built. For this you can use a small sheet of plywood approximately 2 cm thick. The lower part is strengthened with boards or beams to withstand the loads. Borts are erected which will not allow concrete to "escape" and are placed across the dostochki, which designate the steps. For the strength of the construction, corners of metal are used.
- Reinforcement. It is also used for the strength of a future ladder. Particular attention should be given to the edges of the steps to extend the life of the steps. Filling with concrete.
- . Start better from the bottom and make sure that there are no unnecessary voids in the process.
After the concrete has solidified( it takes about 7 days), all the excess elements are dismantled. After that, the ladder is ground, plastered and shpaklyuetsya.
The ladder to the basement of the garage with your own hands: what you need to take into account
The installation of the staircase in the cellar or the basement of the garage does not fundamentally differ from the construction of the staircase from the basement to the ground floor.
All the same it is necessary to consider:
- How much space will the future construction take;
- How safe it will be and how much it can withstand weight;
- With what level of humidity it will have to "fight";
- Its appearance.
Especially pay attention to calculating the strength of the ladder, on which its safety depends. To do this, take the average weight of an adult( approximately 80 kg) and add a small burden( 25-30 kg).
Construction of stairs to the basement( video)
Given all the advice and recommendations, it can be concluded that it is impossible to save on a basement staircase in a private house or another building. We need to seriously approach this issue and carry out the installation of the structure taking into account all norms of fire and construction safety. In this case, you can hope that the staircase will serve for a long time and please owners of a residential building or building.