residents. The ladder is an indispensable tool for moving between floors of residential and commercial premises. As a rule, owners of multistorey private dwellings and country houses prefer turning stairs. This design saves square meters in the apartments, looks impressive and fully performs its basic functions  lifting and lowering. How to correctly calculate the ladder, depending on its type  read the article.

 Calculating the steps of the ladder to the second floor: the optimum height and width of the steps
 How to calculate the steps of the ladder, knowing the length and height of the
 structure. Designing the ladder "Duck step": calculating the ladder step
 Calculate stairs with steps of 90 and 180 degrees
 Calculation of ladders with stall steps using calculator
 Calculation of stair steps( video)
Calculation of stair steps to the second floor: The optimum height and width of the steps
Calculation of the steps of the staircase leading to the second floor of a private house or apartment depends primarily on the type of construction  conventional( straight) or curvilinear( G, Ushaped, screw).For the calculation of ladders, there are general formulas, the main values of which vary depending on the type of ladder.
Most often, the calculation uses a formula based on the length of the step: 2X height of the tread + height of the riser = 60 cm.
The calculations should focus on the composition of the family( the presence of children, the elderly).So, for children not too inflated risers, and for the elderly it will be difficult to use a staircase with shallow disruptions.
How to calculate ladder steps, knowing the length and height of the
One of the main indicators of comfort and comfort of the ladder is the number of steps. The optimal number for one ladder march is the number of steps in the range from 3 to 16. A smaller number increases the probability of stumbling, and more  to get tired when lifting.
In order to calculate the length of the ladder, it is necessary:
 Measure the distance between the floors of the first and second floorsIt is worth forgetting about the thickness of the ceiling, which should enter the total length of the staircase);
 Divide the received value by the height of the riser.
The height of the riser, according to GOST, should be within 1220 cm and be selected according to the type and purpose of the structure.
We design the ladder "Duck step": calculation of the step of the ladder
"Duck step" is an ideal design for a small room: for the organization of such a ladder it will be enough 2.5 meters in length and 80 cm in width. The compactness of the ladder is achieved due to the special design of the steps, the width of the treads is increased in places corresponding to the step.
In order for the duckfoot design to be convenient and safe, it is necessary to follow the following recommendations:
 For direct constructions of optimalThere will be a width of the tread of the step in the place of the step  300 mm;
 The step height should be increased to 15 cm. Minimum;
 The risers should only be used for wooden stairs;
 The transition from the wide to the narrowest part of the stage should be smooth, in the metal construction it is allowed to use pedal steps without a narrowed part;
 To calculate the length of curvilinear, spiral staircases, a formula should be used to calculate the length of structures with a 360degree rotation angle: l = 2πr.
For calculating the length of the "duck" step, the formula is suitable: height of the step in the square + width of the step = 65 cm.
. How to calculate the stairs with steps of 90 and 180 degrees.
The most popular type of staircase that occurs in twostory houses and apartments  G a design with a turning, turning steps or a platform forming an angle of 90 degrees with adjacent walls.
The peculiarity of the design of the rotary ladder is that the width of the steps varies at different parts of the design angle: the outer edge of the ladder is larger, the inner edge is smaller.
The simplest way to calculate the Lshaped structure is the proportional method. It is based on the graphic planning of the number and width of the steps in the corner section and the uniform placement of the remaining structural elements relative to the main ones. Such a method does not require the solution of difficult mathematical problems and the construction of geometrically complex drawings. And the size of the march and steps of the staircase is determined by the State Standard and the "Standards and Norms of Construction".
In order to make the simulation, you will need:
 Take a blank sheet of paper and draw on it two perpendicular lines. The distance from the point of intersection of the lines to the outer corner of the sheet should be equal to the planned width of the march in the proportion 1: 100.We denote this distance by the segment OO1.According to GOST, the width of the stairway march must be at least 80 cm. Do not forget to note in the drawing and the thickness of the bowstring, otherwise calculations will turn out to be inaccurate and it will not be easy to assemble the ladder.
 Determine the boundaries of the steps of the stairway, depending on the length of the structure and the personal preferences of the apartment owners. It is worth remembering that the lower steps before the turn must not be less than two.
 Draw the middle line of the march. For the Lshaped structure, at the turning point, the line should be slightly offset to the inner corner.
 Determine the number of runners and indicate the center stage in the drawing. To do this, from the width of the march it is necessary to lay aside the width of the tread, divided by two( the width of the step in the narrowest area should not be less than 14 cm, on the middle line  less than 20 cm).Through the obtained points  to hold the lateral lines of the center stitch step.
 Mark the location of the remaining steps on the central line of the march.
By the proportion method, you can calculate as a Lshaped ladder with steps and with a platform. Calculations for a design with swivel steps with an angle of 180 degrees occur in a similar way.
Calculation of the turnstile specifically for the parameters of the room can be done using online programs, for example, the designer site of the company "Stolyar".
Calculation of ladders with rungs using calculator
Today, most construction sites offer calculators, the principle of which is based on the introduction of the original values and the provision of the result in the form of text with recommendations or imagedrawing.
Recommendations and drawings are provided in accordance with the parameters that determine the GOST.
In order to calculate the angular ladders, you must choose a design( screw, straight or angle of 180 degrees) and enter certain parameters.
Namely:
 Height and length of the ceiling opening;
 Estimated width of the staircase march;
 Total number of stages;
 Estimated number of swivel steps;
 Number of lower steps.
Most calculators offer, also, determine the height of the step with respect to the floor.
A computer program that does not require an Internet connection for calculations and can provide both a twodimensional and a threedimensional model of the rotary structure will help to calculate the angular ladders.
Calculation of ladder steps( video)
Today, in order to design a convenient and safe pivoting ladder, it is not necessary to consult the services of construction companies. To do this, you can use simple formulas, online calculators or offline programs that allow you to create a model of the staircase, which will fully meet both your preferences and safety standards. You need to choose the easiest and most convenient way and create a comfortable staircase that perfectly fits into the interior of your apartments!