## 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS OF

1.1.When designing, it is necessary to take into account the loads arising during erection and operation of structures, as well as in the manufacture, storage and transportation of building structures.

1.2.The main characteristics of the loads, established in these norms, are their normative values.

The load of a certain type is characterized, as a rule, by one normative value. For the loads from people, animals, equipment on the floors of residential, public and agricultural buildings, from bridge and suspension cranes, snow, temperature climatic influences, two standard values are established: full and low( it is taken into account when it is necessary to take into account the influence of the duration of loads,and in other cases, stipulated in the design rules of structures and bases).

1.3.The design value of the load shall be determined as the product of its normative value by the safety factor for the load gf corresponding to the limit state in question and adopted:

a) * calculated for strength and stability - in accordance with paragraphs.2.2, 3.4, 3.7, 3.11, 4.8, 6.11, 7.3 and 8.7;B) when calculating for endurance - equal to unity;

c) in calculations for deformations - equal to one, unless other values are specified in design and foundation design standards;

d) when calculating for other types of limit states - according to the design and structure design standards.

Calculated values of loads in the presence of statistical data can be determined directly from the given probability of exceeding them.

When calculating structures and bases for building conditions, the estimated values of snow, wind, ice loads and temperature climatic influences should be reduced by 20%.

If it is necessary to calculate strength and stability under fire conditions, with explosive influences, collision of vehicles with parts of structures, the load reliability factors for all loads taken into account should be taken equal to unity.

Note. For loads with two normative values, the corresponding calculated values should be determined with the same reliability factor for the load( for the limit state in question).

( Revised edition, amendment No. 2).

### CLASSIFICATION OF LOADS

1.4.Depending on the duration of the load, it is necessary to distinguish between constant and temporary( long, short, special) loads.

1.5.Loads that occur in the manufacture, storage and transportation of structures, as well as in the construction of structures, should be taken into account in calculations as short-term loads.

The CNIISK them are entered. Kucherenko | approved resolution by the State Committee of the USSR dated August 29, 1985 No. 135 | deadline applied on January 1, 1987 |

Loads occurring during the operation stage of facilities should be taken into account inaccordance with Nos.1.6 - 1.9.

1.6.Constant loads should include:

a) the weight of parts of structures, including the weight of load-bearing and enclosing building structures;

b) weight and pressure of soils( mounds, backfill), rock pressure.

The prestressing forces retained in the structure or on the base must be taken into account in calculations as stresses from constant loads.

1.7 *.To long loads should be attributed:

a) the weight of temporary partitions, gravies and concrete under the equipment;B) The weight of stationary equipment: machines, apparatuses, motors, tanks, pipelines with fittings, support parts and insulation, belt conveyors, permanent lifting machines with their ropes and guides, as well as the weight of liquids and solids filling equipment;

c) pressure of gases, liquids and solids in containers and pipelines, overpressure and rarefaction of air arising from the ventilation of mines;

d) loads on floors from stored materials and shelving equipment in warehouses, refrigerators, granaries, book depositories, archives and similar premises;

E) thermal technological influences from stationary equipment;e) weight of water layer on water-filled flat surfaces;G) weight of industrial dust deposits, if its accumulation is not excluded by appropriate measures;H) loads from people, animals, equipment on the floors of residential, public and agricultural buildings with reduced standard values, given in Table.3;

i) Vertical loads from bridge and suspension cranes with a reduced standard value determined by multiplying the full standard value of the vertical load from one tap( see § 4.2) in each span of the building by a factor: 0.5 - for groups of operating modes for 4K-6K;0,6 - for the operating mode group of cranes 7K;0,7 - for the operation mode group of 8K cranes. Groups of modes of operation of cranes are accepted in accordance with GOST 25546-82;

( k) Snow loads with a reduced design value determined by multiplying the total calculated value by a factor of 0.5;

l) temperature climatic influences with reduced normative values, determined in accordance with the indications of paragraphs.8.2-8.6 under the condition q1 = q2 = q3 = q4 = q5 = 0, DI = DVII = 0;

m) impacts caused by deformations of the substrate, not accompanied by a radical change in soil structure, as well as thawing of permafrost soils;

n) impacts caused by changes in humidity, shrinkage and creep of materials.

Note. In areas with an average January temperature of minus 5 ° C and higher( according to map 5 of the application 5 to SNiP 2.01.07-85 *), snow loads with a reduced design value are not installed.

( Changed edition, Amendment No. 2).

1.8 *.Short-term loads should include:

a) loads from equipment arising in the starting, transition and test modes, as well as during its replacement or replacement;B) the weight of people, repair materials in the areas of maintenance and repair of equipment;C) loads from people, animals, equipment on the floors of residential, public and agricultural buildings with full normative values, in addition to the loads specified in 1.7, a, b, d, d;

d) loads from the mobile handling equipment( loaders, electric cars, stacker cranes, hoists, as well as from bridge and suspension cranes with full normative value);E) snow loads with full calculated value;

e) temperature climatic effects with a full normative value;G) wind loads;H) ice loads.

( Revised edition, amendment No. 2).

1.9.Special loads should be attributed to:

a) seismic impacts;B) explosive effects;

c) loads caused by abnormal process failures, temporary malfunction or equipment failure;

d) effects caused by deformations of the base, accompanied by a radical change in the structure of the soil( with soaking subsidence soils) or subsidence in the areas of mine workings and in karst.

### COMBINING LOADS

1.10.Calculation of structures and bases on the limiting states of the first and second groups should be performed taking into account unfavorable combinations of loads or the corresponding efforts.

These combinations are established from the analysis of real variants of simultaneous action of various loads for the stage of operation of the structure or foundation in question.

1.11.Depending on the load composition taken into account, it is necessary to distinguish:

a) the main combinations of loads, consisting of permanent, long and short-term;B) special combinations of loads, consisting of permanent, long-term, short-term and one of special loads.

Temporary loads with two normative values should be included in combinations as long - with a reduced standard value, as short-term - with the full normative value taken into account.

In special combinations of loads, including explosive influences or loads caused by collision of vehicles with parts of structures, it is allowed not to take into account the short-term loads specified in 1.8 *.

1.12.When considering combinations that include constant and not less than two temporary loads, the calculated values of the temporary loads or their corresponding forces should be multiplied by the coupling coefficients equal to:

in the basic combinations for long loads y1 = 0.95;for short-term y2 = 0.9;

in special combinations for long loads y1 = 0,95;for short-term y2 = 0,8, except for the cases stipulated in the design standards for structures for seismic regions and in other norms for the design of structures and bases. In this case, a special load should be taken without a reduction.

When taking into account the main combinations that include constant loads and one time load( long or short-term), the coefficients y1, y2 should not be entered.

Note. In basic combinations, when three or more short-term loads are taken into account, their calculated values can be multiplied by the coupling factor y2 taken for the first( by the degree of influence) short-term load - 1.0, for the second - 0.8, for the rest - 0.6.

1.13.When considering the combinations of loads in accordance with the instructions of paragraph 1.12 for one time load, you should take:

a) load of a certain kind from one source( pressure or underpressure in the tank, snow, wind, ice loads, temperature climatic effects, load from a single loader,electric car, bridge or overhead crane);B) the load from several sources, if their combined action is taken into account in the normative and calculated values of the load( the load from equipment, people and stored materials for one or several overlaps, taking into account the coefficients yA and yn given in paragraphs 3.8 and 3.9;several bridge or suspension cranes taking into account the coefficient y given in clause 4.17, ice-and-wind load determined in accordance with clause 7.4).

## SNiP 2.01.07-85 * - Loads and impacts.

BUILDING STANDARDS AND RULES

LOADS AND IMPACTS

SNIP 2.01.07-85 *

MOSCOW

2003

DEVELOPED CNIIIC them. Kucherenko Gosstroya USSR( Candidate of Technical Sciences AA Bat - the head of the topic, IA Belyshev, Candidate of Technical Sciences VA Ottavnov, Doctor of Technical Sciences Prof. VD Reiser, A I.Tseitlin) MISI them. V.V.Kuibyshev Ministry of Higher Education of the USSR( candidate of technical sciences LV Klepikov).

INTRODUCED TSNIISK them. Kucherenko Gosstroy USSR.

PREPARED FOR APPROVAL by Glavtekhnormirovaniem Gosstroya USSR( Ph. D. FB Bobrov).

In SNiP 2.01.07-85 * amended number 1, approved by the USSR Gosstroy decision of 08.07.88, No. 132, and also section is added.10 "Deflections and Displacements", developed by CNIISK them. Kucherenko Gosstroya USSR( Candidate of Technical Sciences AA Bat - the head of the topic, Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences NN Skladnev, Doctor of Technical Sciences Prof. AI Tseitlin, Candidates of Technical SciencesA.A. Neustroev, engineer B.I. Belyaev), NIIZhB Gosstroy USSR( doctor of technical sciences, Prof. AS Zalesov) and Central Research Institute of Construction of the USSR State Construction Committee( Ph. D., L.L.Lemysh, EN Kodysh).

With the introduction of section.10 "Deflections and displacements" of SNiP 2.01.07-85 since January 1, 1989, lose force.13.2-13.4 and 14.1-14.3 SNiP II-23-81 *.

Are stated in the new edition: "Deflections and displacements of structural elements must not exceed the maximum limits set by SNiP 2.01.07-85" the following points:

- clause 13.1 SNiP II-23-81 * "Steel structures";
- clause 9.2 of SNiP 2.03.06-85 "Aluminum constructions";
- clause 1.20 of SNiP 2.03.01-84 "Concrete and reinforced concrete structures";
- p. 4.24 SNiP 2.03.09-85 "Asbestos cement structures";
- clause 4.32 of the SNiP "Wooden structures";
- clause 3.19 of the SNiP "Construction of industrial enterprises".

In SNiP 2.01.07-85 * amended No. 2 approved by the Decree of the State Construction Committee of Russia dated May 29, 2003 No. 45.

The points of the table, formulas and maps in which the changes were made are marked with an asterisk.

State Committee of the USSR for construction | Building regulations | SNiP 2.01.07-85 * |

Loads and impacts | Instead of chapter SNiP II-6-74 |

These standards apply to the design of building structures and building groundsand facilities and establish the main provisions and rules for determining and recording the permanent and temporary loads and impacts, as well as their combinations.

Loads and impacts on building structures and foundations of buildings and structures that differ from traditional ones can be determined by special technical conditions.

Notes: 1. Further, where possible, the term "impact" is omitted and replaced by the term "load", and the words "buildings and structures" are replaced by the word "structures".

2. During the reconstruction, the calculated values of the loads should be determined on the basis of the results of the survey of existing structures, while atmospheric loads may be accepted taking into account the data of Roshydromet.

## 3. LOADS FROM EQUIPMENT, PEOPLE, ANIMALS, STORED MATERIALS AND

PRODUCTS 3.1.The norms of this section apply to loads from people, animals, equipment, products, materials, temporary partitions, acting on the floors of buildings and floors on soils.

The options for loading floors with these loads should be taken in accordance with the conditions for the erection and operation of buildings. If at the design stage the data on these conditions are insufficient, when calculating structures and bases, the following options for loading individual overlaps should be considered:

solid loading by the accepted load;

unfavorable partial loading in the calculation of structures and bases sensitive to such a loading scheme;

no time load.

In this case, the total temporary load on the floors of a multi-storey building with an unfavorable partial load thereof should not exceed the load with continuous loading of floors, determined taking into account the coefficients of combinations yn, the values of which are calculated by formulas( 3) and( 4).

## DETERMINATION OF LOADS FROM EQUIPMENT, STORED MATERIALS AND

PRODUCTS 3.2.Loads from equipment( including pipelines, vehicles), stored materials and products are installed in the construction task on the basis of technological solutions, in which should be given:

a) possible locations and floors on the ground location and dimensions of equipment supports,the sizes of warehousing and storage sites for materials and products, the places where equipment may be brought closer together during operation or re-planning;B) the normative values of loads and load reliability factors adopted in accordance with the provisions of these standards, for machines with dynamic loads - the normative values of inertial forces and load reliability factors for inertial forces, as well as other necessary characteristics.

When replacing actual loads on overlaps with equivalent evenly distributed loads, the latter should be determined by calculation and assigned differentially for various structural elements( slabs, secondary beams, crossbars, columns, foundations).Accepted values of equivalent loads must ensure the load-carrying capacity and rigidity of the structural elements required by the conditions of their loading with actual loads. The full normative values of equivalent evenly distributed loads for production and storage facilities should be taken for plates and secondary beams of at least 3.0 kPa( 300 kgf / m2), for crossbars, columns and foundations - not less than 2.0 kPa( 200 kgf / m2)).

The account of perspective increase of loads from the equipment and the stored materials is supposed at the feasibility study.

3.3.The normative value of the weight of the equipment, including pipelines, should be determined on the basis of standards or catalogs, and for non-standard equipment - on the basis of the passport data of the manufacturing plants or working drawings.

The load of the weight of the equipment should include the weight of the installation or the machine( including the drive, permanent fixtures, supporting devices, gravies and sub-beads), the weight of the insulation, the fillers of equipment, possible in operation, the heaviest workpiece, the weight of the transported load,corresponding to the rated load capacity and the like.

The loads from the equipment to the floors and floors on the ground must be taken depending on the conditions of its location and possible movement during operation. At the same time, measures should be envisaged that exclude the need to strengthen the load-bearing structures associated with the movement of process equipment during the installation or operation of the building.

The number of simultaneously considered loaders or electric cars and their placement on the floor during the calculation of various elements should be taken according to the construction task based on technological solutions.

Dynamic impact of vertical loads from loaders and electric cars can be taken into account by multiplying the normative values of static loads by a factor of dynamism equal to 1,2.

3.4.The load reliability factor gt for the weight of the equipment is shown in Table.2.

Table 2

Weight | Load Reliability Coefficient gt |

Fixed Equipment | 1,05 |

Insulation of Stationary Equipment | 1,2 |

Equipment Fillers( Including Tanks and Pipelines): | |

Liquids | 1.0 |

Suspension, Slurry, Bulk | 1, 1 |

Loaders and electric cars( with load) | 1,2 |

## UNIFORM DISTRIBUTED LOADS

3.5.Normative values of uniformly distributed temporary loads on slabs, stairs and floors on soils are given in Table.3.

3.6.The normative values of the loads on the crossbars and slabs from the weight of the temporary partitions should be taken depending on their design, location and the nature of the support on the floors and walls. These loads may be considered as evenly distributed additional loads, taking their normative values on the basis of the calculation for the proposed layouts of the partitions, but not less than 0.5 kPa( 50 kgf / m2).

3.7.The load factor gf for uniformly distributed loads should be taken:

1.3 - at a full standard value of less than 2.0 kPa( 200 kgf / m2);

1,2 - at the full normative value of 2,0 kPa( 200 kgf / m2) and more.

The load-bearing capacity factor from the weight of temporary barriers should be taken in accordance with the instructions in 2.2.

3.8.When calculating beams, crossbars, slabs, as well as columns and foundations that take loads from one overlap, the full normative values of the loads specified in table.3 , should be reduced depending on the cargo area A, m2, the calculated element by multiplying by the coupling factor yA, equal to.

a) for the premises indicated in pos.1, 2, 12, a( for A & gt; A1 = 9 m2),

( 1)

b) for the premises indicated in pos.4, 11, 12, b( for A & gt; A2 = 36 m2),

( 2)

Note. When calculating walls that absorb loads from one overlap, the values of loads should be reduced and the dependence on the cargo area A of the calculated elements( slabs, beams) resting on the walls.

3.9.When determining the longitudinal forces for the calculation of columns, walls and foundations that receive loads from two overlapping or more, the full normative values of the loads specified in Table.3 , should be reduced by multiplying by the combination factor yn:

a) for the premises indicated in pos. B) for the premises indicated in pos. 1, 2, 12, a,

( 3)

;4, 11, 12, b,

( 4)

where - are determined in accordance with clause 3.8;

n is the total number of floors( for rooms indicated in of table 3 of , items 1, 2, 4, 11, 12, a, b), the loads from which are taken into account in calculating the section of the column, wall, foundation under consideration.

Note. When determining the bending moments in columns and walls, it is necessary to take into account the reduction of loads for adjacent beams and crossbars in accordance with the instructions of paragraph 3.8.

## FOCUSED LOADS AND LOADS FOR THE PERFORMANCE

3.10.Bearing elements of ceilings, coverings, stairs and balconies( loggias) should be checked for the concentrated vertical load applied to the element, in an unfavorable position on a square platform with sides no more than 10 cm( in the absence of other temporary loads).If in the construction task, on the basis of technological solutions, higher normative values of concentrated loads are not provided, they should be taken as equal:

a) for floors and ladders - 1,5 kN( 150 kgf);

b) for attics, coverings, terraces and balconies - 1.0 kN( 100 kgf);

c) for coatings, for which it is possible to move only with gangways and bridges, - 0,5 kN( 50 kgf).

Elements designed for possible local construction and operation loads from equipment and vehicles during construction and operation may not be checked for the specified concentrated load.

Buildings and Premises | Standard values for loads r, kPa( kgf / m2) | |

complete | lowered | |

1. Residential buildings;sleeping rooms of preschool institutions and boarding schools;Accommodation of holiday homes and boarding houses, hostels and hotels;wards of hospitals and sanatoriums;terraces | 1,5( 150) | 0,3( 30) |

2. Office premises of administrative, engineering, scientific personnel of organizations and institutions;classrooms of educational institutions;household premises( dressing rooms, showers, washrooms, latrines) of industrial enterprises and public buildings and structures. | 2.0( 200) | 0.7( 70) |

3. Classrooms and laboratories of public health institutions, laboratories of educational and scientific institutions;premises of electronic computers;kitchens of public buildings;technical floors;Basement rooms | Not less than 2,0( 200) | Not less than 1,0( 100) |

4. Halls: | ||

a) Reading | 2,0( 200) | 0,7( 70) |

b) Dining, restaurants, canteens) | 3.0( 300) | 1.0( 100) |

c) meetings and meetings, expectations, visual and concert, sports | 4.0( 400) | 1.4( 140) |

d)trade, exhibition and exposition | Not less than 4,0( 400) | Not less than 1,4( 140) |

5. Book storages;archives | Not less than 5,0( 500) | Not less than 5,0( 500) |

6. Scenes of entertainment enterprises | Not less than 5,0( 500) | Not less than 1,8( 180) |

7. Rostrums: | ||

and) with fixed seats | 4,0( 400) | 1,4( 140) |

b) for standing spectators | 5,0( 500) | 1,8( 180) |

8. Attic rooms | 0,7( 70) | - |

9. Coatings in sections: | ||

a) with possible accumulation of people( coming out of production rooms, halls, auditoriums, etc.) | 4.0( 400) | 1.4( 140) |

b) used forrest | 1,5( 150) | 0,5( 50) |

c) other | 0,5(50) | - |

10. Balconies( loggias) taking into account the load: | ||

a) strip uniform on a 0.8 m wide section along the balcony fence( loggia) | 4,0( 400) | 1,4( 140) |

b) continuous uniform in the area of the balcony( loggia), the effect of which is more unfavorable than that determined by pos.10, and | 2,0( 200) | 0,7( 70) |

11. Maintenance and repair of equipment in production facilities | Not less than 1,5( 150) | - |

12. Vestibules, foyers, corridors, stairs( with associated passages) adjacent to the rooms indicated in the positions: | ||

a) 1, 2 and 3 | 3.0( 300) | 1.0( 100) |

b) 4, 5, 6 and 11 | 4, | 1.4( 140) |

c) 7 | 5.0 (500) | 1.8( 180) |

13. Train station awnings | 4,0( 400) | 1,4( 140) |

14. Premises for livestock: | ||

shallow | Not less than 2,0( 200) | Not less than 0,7( 70) |

of large | Not less than 5,0( 500) | Not less than 1,8( 180) |

3.11.The normative values of the horizontal loads on the railings of the stair railings and balconies should be taken equal:

a) for residential buildings, preschools, rest homes, sanatoriums, hospitals and other medical institutions - 0.3 kN / m( 30 kg / m);

b) for stands and gyms - 1.5 kN / m( 150 kg / m);

c) for other buildings and premises in the absence of special requirements - 0,8 kN / m( 80 kgs / m).

Table 3

Notes: 1. The loads specified in pos.8, should be taken into account in the area not occupied by equipment and materials.

2. The loads specified in pos.9, should be taken into account without snow load.

3. The loads specified in pos.10, should be taken into account when calculating the load-bearing structures of balconies( loggias) and sections of walls in places where these structures are pinched. When calculating the underlying parts of the walls, foundations and grounds, the load on the balconies( loggias) should be taken equal to the loadings of the adjacent main premises of buildings and to reduce them taking into account the indications of paragraphs.3.8 and 3.9.

4. Normative values of loads for buildings and premises indicated in pos.3, 4, d, 5, 6, 11 and 14, should be taken according to the construction task on the basis of technological solutions.

For service areas, bridges, roof guards intended for short stay of people, the normative value of the horizontal concentrated load on the rail of the handrail should be 0.3 kN( 30 kgs)( anywhere along the length of the handrail), if according to the construction task on the basis of technologicalsolutions do not need a larger load value.

For the loads specified in paras.3.10 and 3.11, the reliability factor for the load gf = 1,2 should be adopted.

## 4. LOADS FROM BRIDGE AND SUSPENDED

CRANES 4.1.Loads from bridge and suspension cranes should be determined depending on the groups of their operation modes, established by GOST 25546-82, on the type of drive and on the method of suspension of the load. An approximate list of bridge and suspension cranes of different groups of operation modes is given in the reference application 1.

4.2.The full normative values of the vertical loads transmitted by the crane wheels to the crane track beams and other data necessary for calculation should be taken in accordance with the requirements of the state standards for cranes, and for non-standard cranes - in accordance with the data specified in the manufacturer's passports.

Note. By crane means both beams that carry a single overhead crane and all beams carrying one overhead crane( two beams in a single-span, three at a double-span suspension crane, etc.) are meant.

4.3.The normative value of the horizontal load directed along the crane track and caused by the braking of the electric crane bridge should be taken equal to 0.1 of the total standard value of the vertical load on the brake wheels of the crane side in question.

4.4.The normative value of the horizontal load directed across the crane track and caused by the braking of the electric trolley should be taken as:

for cranes with flexible suspension of load - 0.05 of the sum of the hoisting power of the crane and the weight of the trolley;

for cranes with rigid suspension - 0.1 of the sum of the lifting force of the crane and the weight of the trolley.

This load should be taken into account when calculating the transverse frames of buildings and beams of crane tracks. It is assumed that the load is transferred to one side( beam) of the crane track, distributed equally among all crane wheels supported on it and can be directed both inside and out of the considered span.

4.5.The normative value of the horizontal load, which is directed across the crane track and caused by the misalignments of the bridge electric cranes and the nonparallelism of the crane tracks( lateral force), for each traveling wheel of the crane should be taken equal to 0.1 of the total normative value of the vertical load per wheel.

This load must be taken into account only when calculating the strength and stability of beams of crane tracks and their fastenings to columns in buildings with cranes of operation modes groups 7K, 8K.It is assumed that the load is transferred to the crane track from all wheels of one side of the crane and can be directed both inside and out of the considered span of the building. The load specified in clause 4.4 should not be taken into account in conjunction with the lateral force.

4.6.Horizontal loads from braking the bridge and crane trucks and side forces are considered to be applied at the point of contact of the crane running wheels with the rail.

4.7.The normative value of the horizontal load directed along the crane track and caused by the crane impact on the deadlock stop should be determined in accordance with the instructions given in the mandatory annex 2. This load must be taken into account only when calculating the stops and their fastenings to the beams of the crane track.

4.8.The load reliability factor for crane loads should be taken as gf = 1,1.

Note. When taking into account the local and dynamic effect of the concentrated vertical load from one wheel of the crane, the total normative value of this load should be multiplied when calculating the strength of the crane track beams by an additional factor gf, equal to:

1.6 - for the 8K crane operating mode group with rigid cargo suspension;

1,4 - for group operation mode of 8K cranes with flexible suspension of cargo;

1,3 - for the operating mode of the cranes 7K;

1.1 - for other groups of crane operation modes.

When checking the local stability of the beam walls, the value of the additional coefficient should be taken equal to 1.1.

4.9.When calculating the strength and stability of the crane track beams and their fastenings to load-bearing structures, the calculated values of vertical crane loads should be multiplied by the dynamic factor, equal to:

with a column pitch of not more than 12 m:

1,2 - for the group of operation mode of overhead cranes 8K;

1.1 - for groups of operating modes of bridge cranes 6K and 7K, as well as for all groups of operating modes of overhead cranes;

with a column pitch of more than 12 m - 1,1 for the group of operation mode of overhead cranes 8K.

The calculated values of the horizontal loads from the bridge cranes of the operation mode group 8K should be taken into account with a dynamic factor of 1.1.

In other cases, the dynamic factor is assumed to be 1.0.

When calculating the constructions for endurance, checking the deflections of beams of crane tracks and column displacements, and also taking into account the local effect of the concentrated vertical load from one wheel of the crane, the dynamic factor should not be taken into account.

4.10.Vertical loads in calculating the strength and stability of beams of crane tracks should be taken into account not more than two of the most unfavorable on impact bridges or suspended cranes.

4.11.Vertical loads in calculating the strength and stability of frames, columns, foundations, as well as bases in buildings with bridge cranes in several spans( in each span on one level) should be taken on each path from no more than two of the most unfavorable for impact cranes, andtaking into account the combination in one section of the cranes of different spans - no more than four of the most unfavorable for impact cranes.

4.12.Vertical loads in calculating the strength and stability of frames, columns, trusses and sub-trusses, foundations, as well as the foundations of buildings with hanging cranes on one or several paths, should be taken on each path from no more than two of the most unfavorable cranes. When taking into account the combination of suspension cranes working in different ways in the same location, vertical loads should be taken:

from no more than two cranes - for columns, undergrooves, foundations and bases of the extreme row with two crane tracks in the span;

no more than four

cranes for columns, sub-trusses, foundations and middle-row bases;

for columns, sub-trusses, foundations and bases of the extreme row with three crane tracks in the span;

for rafters with two or three crane tracks in the span.

4.13.Horizontal loads in calculating the strength and stability of beams of crane tracks, columns, frames, rafters and substructures, foundations and foundations should be taken into account not more than two of the most unfavorable for impact cranes located on the same crane track or on different tracks in one alignment. For each crane, only one horizontal load( transverse or longitudinal) must be taken into account.

4.14.The number of cranes considered in calculating the strength and stability in determining vertical and horizontal loads from bridge cranes on two or three tiers in the span, while simultaneously placing in the span of both suspension and bridge cranes, as well as the operation of suspension cranes intended for the transfer of cargoFrom one tap to another with the help of flip-flops, should be taken according to the construction task on the basis of technological solutions.

4.15.When determining the vertical and horizontal deflections of beams of crane tracks, as well as horizontal displacements of columns, the load should be taken into account from one of the most unfavorable to the impact of the crane.

4.16.If there is one crane on the crane track and provided that the second crane is not installed during the operation of the facility, loads on this path must be taken into account from only one crane.

4.17.When two cranes are taken into account, the load from them must be multiplied by the combination factor:

y = 0.85 for groups of crane operation modes 1K-6K;

y = 0,95 - for groups of operating modes of cranes 7K, 8K.

If four cranes are taken into account, the loads from them must be multiplied by the combination factor:

y = 0,7 - for groups of operation modes of cranes 1К - 6К;

y = 0,8 - for groups of operating modes of cranes 7K, 8K.

When one crane is taken into account, vertical and horizontal loads from it must be taken without reducing.

4.18.When calculating the endurance of beams of crane tracks for electric bridge cranes and fastenings of these beams to load-bearing structures, it is necessary to take into account the lower standard values of loads in accordance with 1.7.,.In order to check the endurance of the walls of the beams in the zone of action of the concentrated vertical load from one wheel of the crane, the lower normative values of the vertical force of the wheel should be multiplied by the factor taken into account in calculating the strength of the crane track beams in accordance with the note to § 4.8.Groups of modes of operation of the cranes, at which the endurance calculation should be made, are established by the design design standards.

## 5. SNOW LOADING

5.1 *.The full estimated value of the snow load on the horizontal projection of the coating should be determined by the formula

( 5)

where Sg is the calculated value of the weight of the snow cover per 1 m2 of the horizontal surface of the earth, taken in accordance with 5.2;

m - coefficient of transition from the weight of the snow cover of the ground to the snow load on the coating, adopted in accordance with par.5.3 - 5.6.

( Changed edition, amendment No. 2).

5.2 *.The estimated value of the weight of the snow cover Sg per 1 m2 of the horizontal surface of the earth should be taken depending on the snow region of the Russian Federation according to the data in Table.4.

Table 4 *

Snow regions of the Russian Federation( accepted on the map 1 of the compulsory Appendix 5 ) | I | II | III | IV | V | VI | VII | VIII |

Sg, kPa( kgf / m2) | 0,8 ( 80) | 1,2( 120) | 1,8( 180) | 2,4( 240) | 3,2( 320) | 4,0( 400) | 4,8( 480) | 5,6( 560) |

Note. In mountainous and poorly explored areas, indicated in map 1 of compulsory annex 5, in points with a height above sea level of more than 1500 m, in places with a difficult terrain, and also with a significant difference of local data from the values of the weight of the snow cover given in Table 4 *to establish on the basis of Roshydromet data. At the same time, as the calculated value of Sg, an annual maximum of the weight of the snow cover, which is exceeded on average every 25 years, is to be determined on the basis of the data of route snow surveys of water reserves in areas protected from direct wind( in the forest under tree crowns or in forest glades)for a period of not less than 20 years.

( Changed edition, Amendment No. 2).

5.3.The snow load distribution schemes and the value of the coefficient m should be taken in accordance with the mandatory application 3, with intermediate values of the coefficient m to be determined by linear interpolation.

In cases where more unfavorable conditions for the operation of structural elements occur during partial loading, schemes with a snow load acting on half or a quarter of the span( for coatings with lanterns - in sections of width b) should be considered.

Note. If necessary, snow loads should be determined taking into account the envisaged further expansion of the building.

5.4.Variants with increased local snow load, given in the mandatory Annex 3, must be taken into account when calculating slabs, decking and coating runs, and also when calculating those elements of supporting structures( trusses, beams, columns, etc.) for which these options determinesize of sections.

Note. In the design calculations, the application of simplified snow load schemes equivalent to the effect of the load diagrams in the compulsory Annex 3 is permitted. When calculating the frames and columns of production buildings, only uniformly distributed snow loads can be taken into account, with the exception of the places where there is a difference in coverage, where an increased snow load must be taken into account.

5.5 *.The coefficients m, established in accordance with the instructions of schemes 1, 2, 5 and 6 of the compulsory of Annex 3 of the for flat( with slopes of up to 12% or from 0.05) coatings of single-span and multi-span buildings without lanterns projected in areas with medium speedwind for the three coldest months v ³ 2 m / s, should be reduced by multiplying by a factor where k - is taken from Table.6;b - the width of the cover, accepted not more than 100 m.

For coatings with slopes from 12 to 20% of single-span and multi-span buildings without lanterns projected in areas with v ³ 4 m / s, the coefficient m established in accordance with the instructions of schemes 1 and5 of the compulsory application 3 , should be multiplied by a factor of 0.85.

Average wind speed v for the three coldest months should be taken on the map of the 2 compulsory application 5 .

The snow load reduction envisaged by this clause does not apply:

a) for building coverings in areas with an average monthly air temperature in January higher than minus 5 ° C( see map 5 of the compulsory Annex 5 );

b) on buildings covered from direct exposure to wind by neighboring higher buildings, removed by less than 10 h1, where h1 is the difference between the heights of neighboring and projected buildings;

c) on sections of coverings with lengths b, b1 and b2, for height differences of buildings and parapets( see diagrams 8 - 11 of the compulsory Appendix 3 of the ).

5.6.Coefficients m in determining snow loads for unheated coatings of shops with increased heat emission at roof slopes above 3% and ensuring proper drainage of melt water should be reduced by 20% regardless of the reduction provided in 5.5.

5.7 *.The normative value of the snow load is determined by multiplying the calculated value by a factor of 0.7.

( Changed edition, Amend No. 2).

## 6. WIND LOADS

6.1.The wind load on the structure should be considered as a set:

a) of the normal pressure we applied to the external surface of the structure or element;B) frictional forces wf directed tangentially to the outer surface and referred to the area of its horizontal( for shed or wavy coatings, coatings with lanterns) or vertical projection( for walls with loggias and similar structures);

c) normal pressure wi applied to the internal surfaces of buildings with permeable fences, with open or permanently open apertures;

, or as the normal pressure wx, wy, due to the overall resistance of the structure in the x and y directions, and conditionally applied to the projection of the structure on a plane perpendicular to the corresponding axis.

When designing high structures whose relative dimensions satisfy the condition h / d & gt;10, it is necessary to additionally perform a verification calculation for the vortex excitation( wind resonance);here h is the height of the structure, d is the minimum cross-sectional dimension located at the level of 2 / 3h.

6.2.The wind load should be defined as the sum of the average and pulsation components.

In determining the internal pressure wi, as well as in the calculation of multi-storey buildings up to 40 m in height and single-storey buildings up to 36 m in height with a height-to-flight ratio of less than 1.5 located in Type A and B areas( see 6.5)The pulsation component of the wind load is allowed to be ignored.

6.3.The normative value of the average component of the wind load wm at a height z above the ground surface should be determined by the formula

( 6)

where w0 is the standard value of the wind pressure( see 6.4);

k is a coefficient that takes into account the change in wind pressure in height( see 6.5);

c is the aerodynamic coefficient( see 6.6).

6.4.The normative value of wind pressure w0 should be taken depending on the wind region of the USSR according to the data of Table.5.

For the mountainous and poorly explored areas indicated on map 3, the standard value of wind pressure w0 is allowed to be established on the basis of the data of the Goskomgidromet weather stations, as well as the results of the inspection of the construction areas taking into account the operational experience of the facilities. The standard value of the wind pressure w0, Pa, should be determined by the formula

( 7)

where v0 is numerically equal to the wind speed, m / s, at a level of 10 m above the ground for a type A site corresponding to a 10-minute averaging interval andexceeding the average once every 5 years( unless otherwise specified by the technical conditions approved in accordance with the established procedure, other periods of the frequency of wind speeds).

6.5.The coefficient k, which takes into account the change in wind pressure with respect to the height z, is determined from Table.6 depending on the type of terrain. The following types of terrain are accepted:

A - open coasts of the seas, lakes and reservoirs, deserts, steppes, forest-steppe, tundra;

B - urban areas, forest tracts and other areas, evenly covered with obstacles more than 10 m in height;

C - urban areas with buildings with a height of more than 25 m.

Table 5

Wind regions of the USSR( accepted on map 3 of the mandatory Appendix 5 ) | Ia | I | II | III | IV | V | VI | VII |

w0,kPa( kgf / m2) | 0.17( 17) | 0.23( 23) | 0.30( 30) | 0.38( 38) | 0.48( 48) | 0.60( 60) | 0, 73( 73) | 0,85( 85) |

The structure is considered to be located in the locality of this type, if this area is preserved from the windward side of the structure at a distance of 30h - with the height of the structure h to 60 m and 2 km -When a higher altitude.

Table 6

Height z, m | Coefficient k for terrain types | ||

A | In | With | |

£ 5 | 0,75 | 0,5 | 0,4 |

10 | 1,0 | 0,65 | 0,4 |

20 | 1,25 | 0, 85 | 0.55 |

40 | 1.5 | 1.1 | 0.8 |

60 | 1.7 | 1.3 | 1.0 |

80 | 1.85 | 1.45 | 1.15 |

100 | 2.0 | 1.6 | 1.25 |

150 | 2.25 | 1.9 | 1.55 |

200 | 2.45 | 2.1 | 1.8 |

250 | 2.65 | 2.3 | 2.0 |

300 | 2.75 | 2.5 | 2, 2 |

350 | 2.75 | 2.75 | 2.35 |

³ 480 | 2.75 | 2.75 | 2.75 |

Note. When determining the wind load, the terrain types can be different for different computed wind directions.

6.6.When determining the components of the wind load, we, wf, wi, wx, wy, the corresponding values of the aerodynamic coefficients should be used: the external pressure ce, the friction cf, the internal pressure ci and the drag cx or cy taken in the mandatory application 4 where the arrows indicate the direction of the wind. The plus sign for the coefficients ce or ci corresponds to the direction of the wind pressure on the corresponding surface, the minus sign from the surface. Intermediate load values should be determined by linear interpolation.

When calculating fastenings of fencing elements to load-bearing structures in the corners of the building and along the outer contour of the cover, local negative wind pressure with an aerodynamic coefficient ce = -2 distributed along the surfaces at a width of 1.5 m( Fig. 1) should be taken into account.

In cases not provided for in mandatory annex 4( other forms of structures, taking into account, when the other directions of the wind flow or components of the total resistance of the body are properly taken into account in other directions, etc.), aerodynamic coefficients may be taken for reference and experimental data or based on the resultsPurge models of structures in wind tunnels.

Note. When determining the wind load on the surface of internal walls and partitions, in the absence of an external fence( at the stage of building installation), aerodynamic coefficients of the external pressure c, or the drag c, must be used.

Damn.1. Areas with increased negative wind pressure

6.7.The normative value of the pulsation component of the wind load wp at height z should be determined:

a) for structures( and their structural elements) for which the first natural frequency frequency f1, Hz is greater than the limiting value of the natural frequency fl,( see 6.8)- according to the formula

( 8)

where wm - is determined in accordance with clause 6.3;

z - coefficient of pulsation of wind pressure at the level z, taken from Table.7;

v - coefficient of spatial correlation of wind pressure pulsations( see 6.9);

Table 7

Height z, m | Wind pressure pulsation coefficient z for terrain types | ||

With | |||

£ 5 | 0.85 | 1.22 | 1.78 |

10 | 0.76 | 1.06 | 1.78 |

20 | 0,69 | 0.92 | 1.50 |

40 | 0.62 | 0.80 | 1.26 |

60 | 0.58 | 0.74 | 1.14 |

80 | 0.56 | 0.70 | 1.06 |

100 | 0.54 | 0.67 | 1.00 |

150 | 0.51 | 0.62 | 0.90 |

200 | 0.49 | 0.58 | 0.84 |

250 | 0.47 | 0.56 | 0.80 |

300 | 0.46 | 0,54 | 0.76 |

350 | 0.46 | 0.52 | 0.73 |

³ 480 | 0.46 | 0.50 | 0.68 |

Damn.2. Dynamic factors

1 - for reinforced concrete and stone structures, as well as buildings with a steel frame in the presence of enclosing structures( d = 0,3);2 - for steel towers, masts, lined chimneys, column-type devices, including on reinforced concrete pedestals( d = 0,15)

b) for structures( and their structural elements) that can be considered as a system with one degree of freedom(transverse frames of single-storey industrial buildings, water towers, etc.), with f1

( 9)

where x is the dynamic coefficient determined by the bar.2 as a function of the parameter and the logarithmic decrement d( see 6.8);

gf - load reliability factor( see item 6.11);

w0 is the standard value of the wind pressure, Pa( see 6.4);

c) for buildings that are symmetrical in plan, in which f1

( 10)

where m is the mass of the structure at level z, referred to the surface area to which the wind load is applied;

x - coefficient of dynamism( see 6.7, b);

y - horizontal movement of the structure at the z level along the first form of natural oscillations( for symmetrical buildings of constant height in the quality of y it is allowed to take the movement from a uniformly distributed horizontally applied static load);

y is the coefficient determined by dividing the structure into r sections, within which the wind load is assumed constant, according to the formula

( 11)

where Mk is the mass of the k-th section of the structure;

yk - horizontal movement of the center of the k-th section;

wpk is the resultant of the pulsating component of the wind load, defined by formula( 8), to the k-th section of the structure.

For multi-storey buildings with constant stiffness, mass and width of the windward surface, the standard value of the pulsating component of the wind load at the z level is allowed to be determined by the formula

( 12)

where wph is the normative value of the pulsating component of the wind load at the height h of the top of the structure,formula( 8).

6.8.The limiting value of the frequency of the natural oscillations, fl, Hz, at which it is allowed not to take into account the inertia forces arising from oscillations in the corresponding proper form, should be determined from Table.8.

Table 8

Wind regions of the USSR( accepted on map 3 of the compulsory application 5 ) | fl, Hz with | |

d = 0,3 | d = 0,15 | |

Ia | 0,85 | 2,6 |

I | 0,95 | 2, 9 |

II | 1.1 | 3.4 |

III | 1.2 | 3.8 |

IV | 1.4 | 4.3 |

V | 1.6 | 5.0 |

VI | 1.7 | 5, 6 |

VII | 1.9 | 5.9 |

The value of the logarithmic decrement of oscillations d should be taken:

a) for reinforced concrete and stone structures, as well as for buildings with a steel frame in the presence of enclosing structures d = 0,3;B) for steel towers, masts, lined chimneys, column-type devices, including on reinforced concrete pedestals, d = 0,15.

6.9.The coefficient of spatial correlation of pressure pulsations v should be determined for the design surface of the structure on which the correlation of pulsations is taken into account.

The calculated surface includes those parts of the surface of the windward, leeward, side walls, roof and similar structures from which the wind pressure is transmitted to the calculated element of the structure.

If the design surface is close to a rectangle oriented so that its sides are parallel to the main axes( figure 3), then the coefficient v should be determined from Table.9, depending on the parameters r and c taken from Table.10.

Damn.3 Basic coordinate system for determining the correlation coefficient v

Table 9

r, m | Coefficient v for c, m, equal to | ||||||

5 | 10 | 20 | 40 | 80 | 160 | 350 | |

0.1 | 0.95 | 0.92 | 0.88 | 0.83 | 0.76 | 0.67 | 0.56 |

5 | 0.89 | 0.87 | 0.84 | 0.80 | 0.73 | 0.65 | 0.54 |

10 | 0.85 | 0.84 | 0.81 | 0,77 | 0.71 | 0.64 | 0.53 |

20 | 0.80 | 0.78 | 0.76 | 0.73 | 0.68 | 0.61 | 0.51 |

40 | 0.72 | 0.72 | 0.70 | 0.67 | 0.63 | 0.57 | 0.48 |

80 | 0.63 | 0.63 | 0.61 | 0.59 | 0.56 | 0.51 | 0.44 |

160 | 0,53 | 0.53 | 0.52 | 0.50 | 0.47 | 0.44 | 0.38 |

Table 10

Basic coordinate plane parallel to which the calculated surface is located | r | with |

zoy | b | h |

zox | 0,4a | h |

xoy | b | a |

When calculating the structure as a whole, the dimensions of the design surface should be determined taking into account the indications of the mandatory application4, while for the lattice structure it is necessary to take the dimensions of the calculated surface along its outer contour.

6.10.For structures for which f2

6.11.The wind load factor gt should be taken to be 1.4.

## 7. HOLLOAD LOADS

7.1.Ice loads should be taken into account when designing overhead transmission lines and communications, contact networks of electrified transport, antenna-mast devices and similar structures.

7.2.Normative value of linear ice load for elements of circular cross-section up to 70 mm in diameter.i, N / m, should be determined by the formula

( 13)

The normative value of the surface ice load i ¢, Pa, for other elements should be determined by the formula

( 14)

In formulas( 13) and( 14):

b is the glaze wall thickness, mm( exceeded every 5 years), on elements of circular cross-section with a diameter of 10 mm, located at an altitude of 10 m above the ground,11, and at an altitude of 200 m and more - according to Table.12. For other periods of recurrence, the thickness of the ice wall should be taken according to special technical conditions approved in the established order;

k is a coefficient that takes into account the change in thickness of the ice wall along the height and is taken from Table.13;

d - diameter of the wire, cable, mm;

m1 is a coefficient that takes into account the change in the thickness of the glaze wall as a function of the diameter of the elements of the circular section and is determined from Table.14;

m2 is a coefficient that takes into account the ratio of the surface area of the element susceptible to icing to the total surface area of the element and assumed to be 0.6;

r is the density of ice, taken equal to 0.9 g / cm3;

g - acceleration of gravity, m / s2.

7.3.The load factor gf for the ice load should be taken to be 1.3, except as specified in other regulatory documents.

7.4.The wind pressure on the ice-covered elements should be taken equal to 25% of the standard value of the wind pressure w0, determined in accordance with 6.4.

Notes: 1. In some areas of the USSR, where there are combinations of significant wind speeds with large sizes of ice-frost deposits, the thickness of the ice wall and its density, as well as the wind pressure, should be taken in accordance with the actual data.

2. When determining wind loads on structural elements located at an altitude of more than 100 m above the ground, the diameter of ice-covered wires and cables, established taking into account the thickness of the glaze wall, given in Table.12, it is necessary to multiply by a factor equal to 1.5.

Table 11

Ice regions of the USSR( accepted on the map 4 of the compulsory Appendix 5 ) | I | II | III | IV | V |

Thickness of the ice wall b, mm | At least 3 | 5 | 10 | 15 | Not less than 20 |

Table 12

Height above the surfaceearth, m | Thickness of the ice wall b, mm, for different regions of the USSR | |||

I of the ice area of the Asian part of the USSR | V of the ice area and the mountainous areas | of the northern part of the European territory of the USSR | of the remaining | |

200 | 15 | Adopted on the basis of specialx surveys | Accepted on map 4, g mandatory application 5 | 35 |

300 | 20 | Same | Same on map 4, d | 45 |

400 | 25 | " | Same on map 4, e | 60 |

Table 13

Height above ground, m | 5 | 10 | 20 | 30 | 50 | 70 | 100 |

Coefficient k | 0,8 | 1,0 | 1,2 | 1,4 | 1,6 | 1,8 | 2,0 |

Table 14

Diameter of wire, rope or rope, mm | 5 | 10 | 20 | 30 | 50 | 70 |

Coefficient m1 | 1,1 | 1,0 | 0,9 | 0,8 | 0,7 | 0,6 |

Notes( to Table 11-14): 1. In the V area, the mountainous and poorly studied regions of the USSR,marked on map 4 of the compulsory application 5 , as well as in strongly crossed areas( at the tops of mountains and hills, on passes, on high embankments, in closed mountain valleys, depressions, deepetc.), the thickness of the ice wall must be determined on the basis of data from special surveys and observations.

2. Intermediate values of the quantities should be determined by linear interpolation.

3. The thickness of the ice wall on suspended horizontal elements of circular cross-section( ropes, wires, ropes) may be taken at the height of the location of their reduced center of gravity.

4. To determine the ice load on the horizontal elements of a circular cylindrical shape with a diameter of up to 70 mm, the thickness of the ice wall, given in Table.12, should be reduced by 10%.

7.5.The temperature of the air in ice, regardless of the height of the structures, should be taken in mountainous areas with a mark: more than 2000 m - minus 15 ° C, from 1000 to 2000 m - minus 10 ° C;for the rest of the USSR for structures up to 100 m high - minus 5 ° C, more than 100 m - minus 10 ° C.

Note. In areas where ice is observed below -15 ° C, it should be taken according to actual data.

## 8. TEMPERATURE CLIMATIC EXPOSURE

8.1.In cases stipulated by the norms of structural design, one should take into account the variation in time Dt of the average temperature and the temperature drop and over the section of the element.

8.2.The normative values of the changes in average temperatures over the cross section of the element, respectively in warm Dtw and cold Dtc, are determined by the formulas:

( 15)

( 16)

where tw, tc are the normative values of average temperatures over the cross section of the element in the warm and cold season,accepted in accordance with paragraph 8.3;

t0w, t0c - initial temperatures in the warm and cold season, taken in accordance with paragraph 8.6.

8.3.The normative values of the mean temperatures tw and tc and the temperature gradients over the cross-section of the element in the warmer Jw and the cold Jc time of year for single-layer structures should be determined from Table.15.

Note. For multilayer structures, tw, tc, Jw, Jc are determined by calculation. Constructions made of several materials that are close in terms of thermophysical parameters can be considered as single-layer.

Table 15

Building structures | Buildings and structures in operation | |

unheated buildings( without process heat sources) and open structures | heated buildings | buildings with artificial climate or with permanent process heat sources |

Not protected from solar radiation( includingexternal fencing) | tw = tew + q1 + q4 | tw = tiw + 0,6( tew-tiw) + q2 + q4 |

Jw = q5 | Jw = 0,8( tew-tiw) + q3 + q5 | |

tc =tec - 0.5q1 | tc = tic + 0.6( tec - tic) - 0.5q2 | |

Jc = 0 | Jc = 0.8( tec - tic) - 0.5q3 | |

Protected against the effects of solar radiation( including internal ones) | tw = tew | tw = tiw |

Jw = 0 | ||

tc = tec | tc = tic | |

Jc = 0 |

_____________

The designations adopted in Table 1.15:

tew, tec - average daily outdoor air temperatures respectively in the warm and cold seasons, taken in accordance with clause 8.4;

tiw, tic - indoor air temperatures, respectively, in the warm and cold season, taken in accordance with GOST 12.1.005-88 or according to the construction task based on technological solutions;

q1, q2, q3 are the increments of the average temperature element along the section and the temperature drop from daily fluctuations in the outside air temperature, taken from Table.16;

q4, q5 are the increments of the average element temperature and temperature difference from solar radiation, taken in accordance with item 8.5.

Notes: 1. If there is an initial data on the temperature of the structures in the operational phase of buildings with permanent technological heat sources, the values of tw, tc, Jw, Jc should be taken on the basis of these data.

2. For buildings and structures in the stage of erection tw, tc, Jw, Jc are defined as for unheated buildings in the stage of their operation.

Table 16

Building Constructions | Temperature increments q, ° C | ||

q1 | q2 | q3 | |

Metal | 8 | 6 | 4 |

Reinforced concrete, concrete, reinforced and stone thickness, cm: | |||

up to 15 | 8 | 6 | 4 |

from 15 to 39 | 6 | 4 | 6 |

st.40 | 2 | 2 | 4 |

8.4.The average daily outdoor air temperature in warm tew and the cold tec time of year should be determined by the formulas:

( 17)

( 18)

where tI, tVII are the multi-year average monthly air temperatures in January and July, taken respectively by maps 5 and 6 of the mandatory applications 5 ;

DI, DVII - deviations of average daily temperatures from average monthly( DI - is taken on the map 7 of the compulsory application 5 , DVII = 6 ° C).

Notes: 1. In heated industrial buildings during operation for structures protected from solar radiation, DVII is allowed to be ignored.

2. For the mountainous and poorly studied regions of the USSR, indicated on the maps 5-7 of the compulsory appendix 5 , tec, tew are determined by the formulas:

( 19)

( 20)

where tI, min, tVII, max are the averages of the absolutethe values of the minimum air temperature in January and the maximum temperature in July, respectively;

АI, АVII - average daily air temperature amplitudes respectively in January and July with a clear sky.

tI, min, tVII, max, АI, АVII are accepted according to Roshydromet.

8.5.The increments q4 and q5, ° C, should be determined by the formulas:

( 21)

( 22)

where r is the absorption coefficient of solar radiation by the material of the external surface of the structure, taken in accordance with SNiP II-3-79 *;

Smax - the maximum value of the total( direct and scattered) solar radiation, W / m2, taken in accordance with SNiP 23-01-99 *;

k - coefficient, taken from the table.17;

k1 - coefficient, taken from the table.18.

Table 17

type and orientation of the surface( s) | coefficient k |

1,0 | |

Horizontal Vertical oriented: | |

south west | 1,0 |

0,9 | |

east | 0,7 |

Table 18

Building Constructions | Coefficient k1 |

Metal | 0,7 |

Reinforced concrete, concrete, reinforced and stone thickness, see: | |

to 15 | 0,6 |

from 15 to 39 | 0,4 |

over.40 | 0.3 |

8.6.The initial temperature corresponding to the closure of the structure or part of it to the complete system, in warm t0w and cold t0c, the time of year should be determined by the formulas:

( 23)

( 24)

Note. In the presence of data on the calendar deadline for the construction, the procedure for the production of work, etc., the initial temperature can be specified in accordance with these data.

8.7.The load rating factor gt for the temperature climatic influences Dt and J should be taken to be 1.1.

Elements of structures | Requirements | Vertical limit deflections fu | Loads for determination of vertical deflections |

1. Beam crane tracks for bridge and suspended cranes operated: | |||

from the floor, including hoists( hoists) | Technological | l / 250 | Fromone |

crane from the cabin in groups of operating modes( according to GOST 25546-82): | Physiological and technological | ||

1K-6K | l / 400 | Same | |

7K | l / 500 | " | |

8K | l / 600 | " | |

2Beams, trusses, crossbars, n(including the transverse edges of the slabs and decking): | |||

a) coatings and overlaps open for inspection, with span l, m: | Aesthetic-psychological | Permanent and temporary long-term | |

l £ 1 | l / 120 | ||

l= 3 | l / 150 | ||

l = 6 | l / 200 | ||

l = 24( 12) | l / 250 | ||

l ³ 36( 24) | l / 300 | ||

b) coverings and overlappings with partitions below them | Constructive | Accepted in accordance with clause 6 of the recommended annex 6 | Reducing the gap between the bearing elements( |

) c) coverings and ceilings if they contain elements susceptible to cracking( screeds, floors, partitions) | " | l / 150 | Operating after partitions, floors, screeds |

d) coatings and ceilings withThe presence of hoists( hoists), suspended cranes, controlled: | |||

from the floor | Technological | l / 300 or a / 150( the smaller of the two) | Temporary with the load from one crane or hoist( hoists) in one path |

from the cabin | Physiological | l / 400 or a / 200( the smaller of the two) | From one tap or hoist( hoists) in one path |

e) overlapping exposed: | Physiological and technological | ||

of moving goods, materials, assemblies and equipment elements and other movableloads( including under trackless vehicles) | l / 350 | 0,7 full standard values of temporary loads or loads from one loader( more unfavorable of two) | |

loads from rail transport: | |||

narrow gauge | l / 400 | From one-wheelset of wagons( or a floor machine) on the same path | |

broad- | l / 500 | same | |

3. Elements of stairs( marches, platforms, stringers), balconies, loggias | Aesthetic psychological | Those that are in pos.2, and | |

Physiological | Determined in accordance with 10.10 | ||

4. Overlap plates, flights of stairs and platforms, the deflection of which is not impeded by adjacent elements | " | 0,7 mm | Concentrated load 1 kN( 100 kgf) in the middle of span |

5. Jumpers and hinged wall panels above window and door apertures( bolts and glazing runs) | Constructive | l / 200 | Reducing the gap between the bearing elements and the window or door filling located under the |

elements. Aesthetical-psychological | Same,that in pos.2, and |

## 10.

TROUBLES AND DISPLACEMENTS The norms of this section establish the ultimate deflections and displacements of load-bearing and enclosing structures of buildings and structures when calculating the second group of limit states, regardless of the building materials used.

The norms do not apply to hydrotechnical facilities, transport, nuclear power plants, as well as overhead power transmission lines, open switchgears and communication antenna systems.

## GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

10.1.When calculating building structures for deflections( bends) and displacements, the condition

( 25)

must be fulfilled where f is the deflection( bending) and movement of the structural element( or structure as a whole), determined taking into account the factors influencing their values, in accordance withwith pp.1-3 of the recommended annex 6;

fu - ultimate deflection( bending) and movement, established by these standards.

The calculation should be based on the following requirements:

a) technological( ensuring the normal operation of the technological and handling equipment, instrumentation, etc.);B) constructive( ensuring the integrity of adjoining structural elements and their joints, providing specified slopes);

c) physiological( prevention of harmful effects and discomfort sensations when fluctuating);

d) aesthetic-psychological( providing a favorable impression of the appearance of structures, preventing the perception of danger).

Each of these requirements must be met when calculating independently of the others.

Constraints on structural vibrations should be installed in accordance with the normative documents of clause 4 of recommended annex 6.

10.2.The design situations for which the deflections and movements are to be determined, the loads corresponding to them, as well as the requirements for the construction lift are given in point 5 of recommended annex 6.

10.3.Limit deflections of structural elements of coatings and ceilings, limited on the basis of technological, constructive and physiological requirements, should be counted from the curved axis corresponding to the state of the element at the time of application of the load from which the deflection is calculated, and limited based on aesthetic and psychological requirements - from the straight line connectingsupports of these elements( see also item 7 of the recommended Appendix 6).

10.4.Deflections of structural elements are not limited on the basis of aesthetic and psychological requirements, if they do not impair the appearance of structures( for example, membrane coatings, inclined canopies, structures with a sagging or raised lower belt) or if the structural elements are hidden from view. Deflections are not limited on the basis of these requirements and for structures of ceilings and coatings over rooms with short stay of people( for example, transformer substations, attics).

Note. For all types of coatings, the integrity of the roofing carpet should be provided, as a rule, by constructive measures( for example, by using expansion joints, by creating indivisibility of the coating elements), rather than by increasing the rigidity of the bearing elements.

10.5.The load factor for all loads taken into account and the dynamic factor for loads from loaders, electric cars, bridge and suspension cranes should be taken equal to one.

The reliability coefficients for responsibility must be taken in accordance with the mandatory application 7.

10.6.For structural elements of buildings and structures, the ultimate deflections and movements of which are not specified in this and other regulatory documents, vertical and horizontal deflections and movements from permanent, long-term and short-term loads should not exceed 1/150 span or 1/75 of the console outreach.

## VERTICAL LIMITS OF THE

STRUCTURES ELEMENTS 10.7.Vertical ultimate deflections of structural elements and loads, from which deflections should be determined, are given in Table.19. Requirements for clearances between adjacent elements are given in clause 6 of recommended annex 6.

Table 19

_____________

The designations adopted in Table 1.19:

l - calculated span of the structural member;

a - the step of beams or trusses, to which the suspended crane tracks are attached.

Notes: 1. For the console, instead of l, double its take-off should be taken.

2. For intermediate values of l in pos.2, and the ultimate deflections should be determined by linear interpolation, taking into account the requirements of clause 7 of recommended annex 6.

3. In pos.2, and the numbers indicated in parentheses should be taken at room heights up to 6 m inclusive.

4. Features of calculation of deflections on pos.2, d are specified in clause 8 of the recommended annex 6.

5. When limiting deflections, the aesthetic psychological requirements allow the passage l to be equal to the distance between the inner surfaces of the bearing walls( or columns).

10.8.The distance( clearance) from the top point of the bridge crane to the bottom of the bent supporting structures of the coatings( or objects attached to them) must be at least 100 mm.

10.9.Deflections of the elements of the coverings should be such that, despite their availability, a roof slope of not less than 1/200 in one direction was provided( except in cases specified in other normative documents).

10.10.Limit deflections of the elements of ceilings( beams, crossbars, slabs), stairs, balconies, loggias, premises of residential and public buildings, as well as the premises of industrial buildings, based on physiological requirements, should be determined by the formula

( 26)

where g is the acceleration of freefalling;

p - the normative value of the load from people that vibrate, taken according to Table.20;

p1 - the lowered normative value of the load on the overlap, taken according to table.3 and 20;

q - the normative value of the load on the weight of the element being calculated and the structures supported on it;

n - the frequency of application of the load when walking a person, taken according to Table.20;B is the coefficient taken from Table.20.

Table 20

Rooms accepted by table.3 | p, kPa( kgf / m2) | p1, kPa( kgf / m2) | n, Hz | b |

Pos.1, 2, except for classrooms and household;3, 4, a, 9, b, 10, b | 0,25( 25) | Accepted according to table.3 | 1,5 | |

Pos.2 - class and household;4, b-d, except dance; pos.9, a, 10, a, 12, 13 | 0.5( 50) | Same | 1,5 | |

Pos.4 - dancing; pos.6, 7 | 1.5( 150) | 0.2( 20) | 2.0 | 50 |

_____________

The designations adopted in Table 6 are used.20:

Q - weight of one person, taken equal to 0.8 kN( 80 kgf);

a is the coefficient assumed to be 1.0 for the elements calculated in the beam scheme, 0.5 for the remaining cases( for example, when the plates are supported on three or four sides);

a - step of beams, crossbars, width of slabs( decking), m;

l - calculated span of the structural member, m.

Deflections should be determined from the sum of loads yA1p + p1 + q, where yA1 is the coefficient determined by formula( 1).

## HORIZONTAL LIMITS OF COLUMNS AND BRAKE STRUCTURES FROM CRANE LOADS

10.11.Horizontal limiting deflections of columns of buildings equipped with overhead cranes, crane overpasses, as well as beams of crane tracks and brake structures( beams or trusses), should be taken from Table.21, but not less than 6 mm.

Deflections should be checked at the head of the crane rails from the braking forces of the trolley of one crane, directed across the crane track, without taking into account the foundation roll.

Table 21

Crane operating modes groups | Limit deflections fu | ||

columns | of beams of crane tracks and braking structures, buildings and cranes overpasses( covered and open) | ||

buildings and covered cranes overpasses | of open cranes overpasses | ||

1K - 3K | h / 500 | h / 1500 | l / 500 |

4K - 6K | h / 1000 | h / 2000 | l / 1000 |

7K - 8K | h / 2000 | h / 2500 | l / 2000 |

_____________

21:

h - the height from the top of the foundation to the head of the crane rail( for single-storey buildings and covered and open crane racks) or the distance from the axis of the crossbar to the head of the crane rail( for the upper floors of multi-storey buildings);

l - calculated span of the structural element( beams).

10.12.Horizontal limiting approaches of crane runways of open trestles from horizontal and eccentrically applied vertical loads from one crane( not including bank of foundations), limited on the basis of technological requirements, should be taken equal to 20 mm.

## HORIZONTAL LIMITING LIMITS AND DEFLECTIONS OF FRAME BUILDINGS, SEPARATE ELEMENTS OF CONSTRUCTIONS AND SUPPORT OF CONVEYOR GALLERIES FROM WIND LOAD, KRENA OF FOUNDATIONS AND TEMPERATURE CLIMATE INFLUENCE

10.13.Horizontal limiting movements of skeleton buildings, limited on the basis of design requirements( ensuring the integrity of filling the framework with walls, partitions, window and door elements) are given in Table.22. Guidance on the definition of movement is given in paragraph 9 of recommended annex 6.

10.14.Horizontal movement of frame buildings should be determined, usually with regard to the roll( rotation) of the foundations. At the same time, loads from the weight of equipment, furniture, people, stored materials and products should be taken into account only if all of the floors of multi-storey buildings are loaded uniformly with these loads( taking into account their reduction depending on the number of floors), except in cases where, under conditions of normal operationother loading is envisaged.

The foundation roll should be determined taking into account the wind load assumed at a rate of 30% of the standard value.

For buildings up to 40 m high( and supports of conveyor galleries of any height) located in wind areas I-IV, the foundation roll caused by wind load is allowed to be ignored.

Table 22

Buildings, walls and partitions | Fastening of walls and partitions to the frame of the building | Limit movements fu |

1. Multi-storey buildings | Any | h / 500 |

2. One floor of multi-storey buildings: | Compliant | hs / 300 |

a) walls | Rigid | hs / 500 |

b) Natural stone-lined walls made of ceramic blocks, of glass( stained-glass windows) | « | hs / 700 |

3. One-story buildings( with self-supporting walls) heightfloorhs, m: | Compliant | |

hs £ 6 | hs / 150 | |

hs = 15 | hs / 200 | |

hs ³ 30 | hs / 300 |

_____________

The designations adopted in the table.22:

h - the height of multi-storey buildings, equal to the distance from the top of the foundation to the axis of the cover;

hs - the height of the floor in one-storey buildings, equal to the distance from the top of the foundation to the bottom of the trusses;in multi-storey buildings: for the lower floor - equal to the distance from the top of the foundation to the axis of the crossbar;for the remaining floors - equal to the distance between the axes of adjacent crossbars.

Notes: 1. For intermediate values of hs( at position 3), the horizontal limit movements should be determined by linear interpolation.

2. For the upper floors of multi-storey buildings designed using single-storey building elements, horizontal limit movements should be taken to be the same as for single-storey buildings. In this case, the height of the upper storey hs is taken from the axis of the crossbar of the interstorey floored to the bottom of the rafter structures.

3. Compliant fastenings include fastening walls or partitions to the frame, not interfering with the displacement of the frame( without transfer to walls or partitions of forces that can cause damage to structural elements);to rigid - fastenings, preventing mutual displacements of the frame, walls or partitions.

4. For single-storey buildings with curtain walls( as well as in the absence of a hard disk cover) and multi-storey floors, the maximum movement is allowed to increase by 30%( but take no more than hs / 150).

10.15.Horizontal movement of frameless buildings from wind loads is not limited if their walls, partitions and connecting elements are designed for strength and crack resistance.

10.16.The horizontal limit deflections of the frames and crossbars of the half-timbered frame, as well as of the hanging wall panels from the wind load, limited on the basis of design requirements, should be taken equal to l / 200, where l is the calculated span of the pillars or panels.

10.17.The horizontal limiting deflections of the supports of conveyor galleries from wind loads, limited on the basis of technological requirements, should be taken equal to h / 250, where h is the height of the supports from the top of the foundation to the bottom of the trusses or beams.

10.18.Horizontal limiting deflections of columns( racks) of frame buildings from temperature climatic and shrinkage effects should be taken equal to:

hs / 150 - for walls and partitions made of bricks, gypsum concrete, reinforced concrete and hinged panels,

hs / 200 - with walls lined with natural stone,from ceramic blocks, from glass( stained-glass windows), where hs is the height of the floor, and for single-storey buildings with bridge cranes - the height from the top of the foundation to the bottom of the crane track beams.

In this case, the temperature effects should be taken without taking into account the daily fluctuations in the temperature of the outside air and the temperature difference from solar radiation.

When determining the horizontal deflections from the temperature climatic and shrinkage effects, their values should not be summed up with deflections from wind loads and from the foundation roll.

## LIMITS OF ELEMENTS OF INTERSTATE OVERLAPES FROM PRELIMINARY PRESSURE

10.19.The limiting bends fu of the elements of the interfloor overlap, limited based on the design requirements, should be taken equal to 15 mm for l ≤ 3 m and 40 mm for l ³ 12 m( for intermediate values of l, the limiting bends should be determined by linear interpolation).

Bends f should be determined from pre-compression forces, the weight of the floor elements and the floor weight.

## APPLICATIONS

## APPENDIX 1 Reference

## BRIDGES AND SUSPENSION VALVES OF DIFFERENT OPERATING MODE GROUPS( SAMPLE LIST)

cranes Operating mode groups | Terms of use | |

Manual of all types | 1K - 3K | Any |

With drive hinges, including hinged hooks | Repair and reloading of limited intensity | |

With winch trucks, including with hinged grippers | Power plant halls, installation works, reloading workslimited intensity | |

With winch cargo trolleys, including with hinged grippers | 4К-6К | Medium-intensity reloading, technological works in mechanical shops, warehouses of finished products of construction materials companies, warehouses of metal products |

With grabs of two-rope type, magnetic grab | Mixedwarehouses, work with various loads | |

Magnetic | Semi-finished warehouses, work with various loads | |

Hardening, forging, pin, foundry | 7К | Metallurgical plants |

With two-channel grabs, magnetic grab | Warehouses of bulk goods and scrap with uniform loads( with one or two shifts) | |

With winch trucks, including with hinged grippers | Technological cranes with round-the-clockwork | |

Traverse, gravel, muldozavalochnye, for stripping ingots, scrapers, capillary, well | 8K | Workshops of metallurgical enterprises |

Magnetic | Shop and warehouses metalarge-scale metal warehouses with homogeneous cargoes | |

With two-channel grab grabs, magnetic grab | Bulk goods and scrap yards with uniform cargoes( with round-the-clock operations) |

## ANNEX 2

Mandatory

## LOADING FROM CRANE SHOCK O ADAPTER

Standard value of horizontal load F, kN, directed along the crane track and caused by a crane impact on the deadlock stop, should be determined by the formula

where v is the speed of the crane movement at the moment of impact, Single equal to half the nominal m / s;

f - possible maximum draft of the buffer, equal to 0.1 m for cranes with flexible suspension of cargo with a carrying capacity of not more than 50 tons of groups of operating modes 1K-7K and 0.2 m - in other cases;

m - reduced mass of the crane, determined by the formula

here mb - mass of the crane bridge, t;

tc is the mass of the trolley, t;

tq - load capacity of the crane, t;

k is the coefficient;k = 0 - for cranes with flexible suspension;k = 1 - for cranes with rigid suspension of cargo;

l - span of the crane, m;

l1 - trolley approach, m.

The calculated value of the load under consideration taking into account the reliability factor for the load gt( see 4.8) is accepted no more than the limit values specified in the following table:

Schematic number | Coating profiles and snow load diagrams | Coefficient m and scope of schemes |

1 | Buildings with single and double-skin coatings | m = 1 for a £ 25 °; m = 0 "a ³ 60 °. Variants 2 and 3 should be considered for buildings with gable coverings( profile b), with option 2 at 20 ° £ a £ 30 °;Option 3 - at 10 ° £ a £ 30 ° only in the presence of running bridges or aeration devices on the ridge of the cover |

2 | Buildings with vaulted and close to them in outline coatings | m1 = cos 1,8a;m2 = 2.4 sin 1.4a, where a is the slope of the coating, deg |

2 ¢ | Coverage in the form of lancet arches | For b ³ 15 °, use scheme 1, b, taking l = l, for b |

3 | Buildings with longitudinallanterns closed on top
| but not more than: 4,0 - for trusses and beams at a standard coating weight of 1.5 kPa or less; 2,5 - for trusses and beams at a standard value of coating weight above 1.5 kPa; 2,0 - for reinforced concrete slabs over span of 6 m and less and for steel profiled flooring; 2,5 - for reinforced concrete slabs over a span of 6 m, as well as for runs regardless of span; bl = hl, but not more than b. When determining the load at the end of the flashlight for zone B, the value of the coefficient m in both versions should be taken to be 1.0 Notes: 1. Schemes for variants 1 and 2 should also be used for gable and vaulted coverings of two-three-span buildings with lamps in the middle of buildings. 2. The influence of windbreakers on the distribution of snow load near the streetlights should be ignored. 3. For flat skates with b & gt;48 m the local increased load of the flashlight should be taken into account, as in the case of differences( see diagram 8) |

3 ¢ | Buildings with longitudinal lanterns open from the top | The values of b( b1, b2) and m should be determined in accordance with the instructions in Scheme 8;span l is assumed equal to the distance between the upper edges of the lanterns |

4 | Scaffolding | Schemes should be used for shed coverings, including inclined glazing and vaulted roofing |

5 | Two- and multi-span buildings with double-skinned coverings | Option 2 should be considered for a ³ 15 ° |

6 | Two- and multi-span buildings with vaulted and close to them in outline coverings | Option 2 should be taken into account for For reinforced concrete slabs, the values of the coefficients m should not exceed 1.4 |

7 | Two- and multi-span buildings with gable and vaulted coverings with longitudinal lantern | The coefficient m should be taken for flares with a lantern in accordance with variants 1 and 2 of scheme 3, for flares without a lantern - with options 1 and 2 of schemes 5 and 6. For flat gable(a coverings at l> 48 m should take into account the local increased load, as in the differences( see Scheme 8) |

8 | Buildings with altitude difference
| The snow load on the top cover should be taken in accordance with schemes 1-7, and on the lower one - in two versions: according to schemes 1-7 and scheme 8( for buildings - profile "a", for awnings - profileThe coefficient m should be taken equal to: where h is the height of the drop, m, measured from the eaves of the top cover to the roof of the lower one and at a value of more than 8 m, taken as m is 8 m; l ¢ 1;l ¢ 2 - the lengths of the sections of the upper( l ¢ 1) and lower( l ¢ 2) cover, from which snow is carried to the zone of height difference, m;they should be accepted: for coating without longitudinal lanterns or with transverse lanterns - for coating with longitudinal lanterns - ( with l ¢ 1 and l ¢ 2 at least 0). t1;m2 - the proportion of snow transported by the wind to a height difference;their values for the upper( m1) and lower( m2) coatings should be taken depending on their profile: 0,4 - for a flat covering with a £ 20 °, vaulted with f / l £ 1/8; 0.3 - for flat coating with a & gt;20 °, vaulted with f / l & gt;1/8 and coatings with transverse lanterns. For reduced coverings with a width a m2 = 0.5 k1 k2 k3, but not less than 0.1, where( with the reverse slope shown in the figure by a dashed line, k2 = 1);but not less than 0.3( a - in m, b, j - in degrees). The length of the zone of increased snow deposition b should be taken equal to: at b = 2h, but not more than 16 m; at but not more than 5h and not more than 16 m. The coefficients m accepted for calculations( shown in diagrams for two variants) should not exceed: ( where h is in m, s0 is in kPa); 4 - if the bottom covering is a building cover; 6 - if the bottom cover is a canopy. The coefficient m1 should be taken: m1 = 1 - 2m2. Notes: 1. With d1( d2) & gt;12 m, the value of m for the drop section of length d1( d2) should be determined without taking into account the effect of the lanterns on the raised( lowered) cover. 2. If the spans of the upper( lower) cover have a different profile, then in determining m it is necessary to take the corresponding value of m1( m2) for each propet within l ¢ 1( l ¢ 2). 3. The local load at the drop should not be taken into account if the height of the drop, m, between two adjacent covers is less( where s0 is in kPa). |

9 | Buildings with two altitude differences | The snow load on the top and bottom covers should be taken in accordance with scheme 8. Valuesm1, b1, m2, b2 should be determined for each drop independently, taking: m1 and m2 in scheme 9( when determining the loads near h1 and h2) corresponding to m1 in scheme 8 and m3( the proportion of snow carried by the wind along the lowered cover) corresponding tom2 in Scheme 8. In this case: |

10 | Coating withparapets | The scheme should be used when( h - in m; s0 - in kPa); but not more than 3 |

11 | Plot areas adjacent to the roofs above the roof and other superstructures | The scheme refers to areas with superstructures with a base diagonal of not more than 15 m. Depending on the design( cover plates, trusses and trusses)the most unfavorable position of the zone of increased load( for an arbitrary angle b). The coefficient m, constant within the specified zone, should be taken equal to: 1.0 at d £ 1.5 m; but not less than 1,0 and not more than: 1,5 at 1,5 2,0 "5 2,5" 10 b1 = 2h, but not more than 2d |

12 | Hanging coverings of cylindrical form | m1 = 1,0; |

Schematic number | Schemes of buildings, structures, structural elements and wind loads | Determination of aerodynamic coefficients with | Notes | |||||||

1 | Separate standing flat structures. | - | ||||||||

Vertical and deviating from vertical to not more than 15 ° surfaces: | ||||||||||

upwind | se = +0.8 | |||||||||

leeward | se = -0.6 | |||||||||

2 | Buildings with double-skinned coverings | |||||||||

coefficient, deg | Values se1, se2at, equal to | |||||||||

0 | 0,5 | 1 | ³ 2 | |||||||

se1 | 0 | 0 | -0,6 | -0,7 | -0,8 | 1. With wind perpendicular to the end of buildings, for the entire surface of the coating, c = -0.7. | ||||

20 | +0.2 | -0.4 | -0.7 | -0.8 | ||||||

40 | +0.4 | +0.3 | -0.2 | -0.4 | ||||||

60 | +0.8 | +0.8 | +0,8 | +0,8 | ||||||

se2 | £ 60 | -0,4 | -0,4 | -0,5 | -0,8 | 2. When determining the coefficient n in accordance with clause 6.9 | ||||

Valuesgt; | ||||||||||

& lt; / RTI & | ||||||||||

3 | Buildings with vaulted and close to them in outline coatings | 1. See note.1 to the scheme 2.2.When determining the coefficient n in accordance with clause 6.9 | ||||||||

coefficient Values se1, se2 at, equal to | ||||||||||

0,1 | 0,2 | 0,3 | 0,4 | 0,5 | ||||||

se1 | 0 | +0,1 | +0, 2 | +0.4 | +0.6 | +0.7 | ||||

0.2 | -0.2 | -0.1 | +0.2 | +0.5 | +0.7 | |||||

³ 1 | -0,8 | -0,7 | +0.3 | +0.3 | +0.7 | |||||

se2 | Arbitrary | -0,8 | -0,9 | -1 | -1,1 | -1,2 | ||||

The value of ce3 is taken in accordance with scheme 2 | ||||||||||

4 | Buildings with longitudinal lamp | The coefficients ce1, se2 and se3 should be determined in accordance with decreeto the scheme 2 of | 1. When calculating the transverse frames of buildings with a lantern and windscreens, the value of the total coefficient of the drag of the "lamp-shield" system is taken to be 1.4.2.When determining the coefficient n in accordance with clause 6.9 | |||||||

5 | Buildings with longitudinal lanterns | To cover the building on the AB plot, the coefficients ce should be taken in accordance with scheme 4. For the lanterns of the section BC for l £ 2 cx = 0.2;for 2 l l 8 8 for each lantern c = 0,1l;at l & gt;8 cx = 0.8, here. For the rest of the coating, ce = -0.5 | 1. For windward, leeward and side walls of buildings, the pressure coefficients should be determined in accordance with the instructions in Scheme 2.2.When determining the coefficient n in accordance with clause 6.9 | |||||||

6 | Buildings with longitudinal lanterns of different heights | The coefficients with ¢ e1, c ¢ e2 and c ¢ e3 should be determined in accordance with the directions to scheme 2, where in determining the value for h1, it is necessary to take the heightwindward wall of the building. For the plot, AB ce should be determined in the same way as for the section of the aircraft of scheme 5, where for h1 - h2 it is necessary to take the height of the | lamp.1 and 2 to Scheme 5 | |||||||

7 | Buildings with Shed Coatings | For a section, ABe se should be determined in accordance with the instructions in Scheme 2. For a section of the aircraft, se = -0.5 | 1. The frictional force must be taken into account in an arbitrary wind direction,= 0.04.2.See note.1 and 2 to scheme 5 | |||||||

8 | Buildings with flashing lights | For the windward lantern, the coefficient ce should be determined in accordance with the instructions in Scheme 2, for the rest of the cover - as for the section of the aircraft of circuit 5 | .1 and 2 to scheme 5 | |||||||

9 | Buildings permanently open on one side | For m £ 5%, ci1 = ci2 = ± 0.2;at m ≥ 30%, ci1 should be taken equal to ci3, determined in accordance with the directions to scheme 2;сi2 = ± 0,8 | 1. Coefficients on the external surface should be taken in accordance with the indications to the scheme 2.2.The permeability of the fence m should be defined as the ratio of the total area of the openings in it to the total fence area. For a hermetic building, ci = 0 should be taken. In the buildings specified in clause 6.1, c, the normative value of the internal pressure on the light partitions( with their surface density less than 100 kg / m2) should be taken as 0.2w0, but not less than 0,1 kPa( 10 kgf / m2). 3. For each building wall, as a "plus" or "minus" for the coefficient ci1 for m £ 5%, it should be determined proceeding from the condition for realizing the most unfavorable loading scenario. | |||||||

10 | Building ledges for a | For the section CD ce = 0,7.For the section BC, ce should be determined by linear interpolation of the values taken at points B and C. The coefficients ce1 and se3 in section AB should be taken in accordance with the directions for scheme 2( where b and l are dimensions in the plan of the whole building). For vertical surfaces, the coefficientce must be determined in accordance with the instructions to schemes 1 and 2 | - | |||||||

11 | Sheds | Schematic type | a, grad | Values of the coefficients | 1. The coefficients se1, se2, se3, ce4 should be referred to the sum of the pressures on the top and bottom surfaces of the canopies.negativelythe values of c1, c2, c3, and c4 should be reversed. 2. For canopies with wavy coatings with f = 0,04 | |||||

se1 | se2 | se3 | se4 | |||||||

I | 10 | +0.5 | -1,3 | -1,1 | 0 | |||||

20 | +1,1 | 0 | 0 | -0,4 | ||||||

30 | +2.1 | + 0.9 | +0.6 | 0 | ||||||

II | 10 | 0 | -1,1 | -1,5 | 0 | |||||

20 | +1.5 | +0.5 | 0 | 0 | ||||||

30 | +2 | +0.8 | +0.4 | +0.4 | ||||||

III | 10 | +1.4 | +0.4 | - | - | |||||

20 | +1,8 | +0.5 | - | |||||||

30 | +2.2 | +0.6 | - | - | ||||||

IV | 10 | +1.3 | +0.2 | - | - | |||||

20 | +1,4 | +0.3 | - | - | ||||||

30 | +1.6 | +0.4 | - | - | ||||||

12 a | Sphere | b, degree | 0 | 15 | 30 | 45 | 60 | 75 | 90 | 1. Coefficients are given for Re & gt;4 × 105.2.When determining the coefficient n in accordance with 6.9, we should take b = 0,7d |

se | +1.0 | +0.8 | +0.4 | -0.2 | -0,8 | -1,2 | -1.25 | |||

Continuation | ||||||||||

b, deg | 105 | 120 | 135 | 150 | 175 | 180 | ||||

se | -1.0 | -0,6 | -0.2 | +0.2 | +0.3 | +0.4 | ||||

cx = 1.3 forRe c = 0.2 at 4 × 105 & gt;Re, where Re is the Reynolds number; ; - diameter of the sphere, m; - determined in accordance with 6.4, Pa; - is determined in accordance with clause 6.5; - distance, m, from the surface of the earth to the center of the sphere; - defined in accordance with clause 6.11 | ||||||||||

12 b | Constructions with circular cylindrical surface | & gt; where = 1 for & gt;0; | 1. Re should be determined by the formula to the scheme 12 a, taking z = h1.2.When determining the coefficient n in accordance with 6.9, it is necessary to take: b = 0,7d; h = h1 + 0,7f 3. The coefficient ci should be taken into account when the cover is lowered( "floating roof"), and also in the absence of its | |||||||

0.2 | 0.5 | 1 | 2 | 5 | 10 | 25 | ||||

0.8 | 0.9 | 0.95 | 1.0 | 1.1 | 1.15 | 1,2 | ||||

- must be taken with Re & gt;4 × 105 according to schedule: | ||||||||||

Coating | Value of se2 at | |||||||||

1/6 | 1/3 | ³ 1 | ||||||||

Flat, conical at a £ 5 °, spherical at £ 0.1 | -0.5 | -0,6 | -0,8 | |||||||

1/6 | 1/4 | 1/2 | 1 | 2 | ³ 5 | |||||

with i | -0.5 | -0,55 | -0,7 | -0,8 | -0,9 | -1,05 | ||||

13 | Prismatic structures | ;Table 1 | 1. For walls with loggias with a wind parallel to these walls, cf = 0,1;for wavy coatings with f = 0.04.2.For rectangular in terms of buildings at l / b = 0.1 - 0.5 and b = 40 ° - 50 ° = 0.75;the resultant wind load is applied at point 0, with the eccentricity e = 0.15b. 3. Re should be determined by the formula to the scheme 12 a, taking z = h1, d - diameter of the circumscribed circle. 4. When determining the coefficient n in accordance with 6.9 h - the height of the structure, b - the dimension in the plan along the y axis. | |||||||

le | 5 | 10 | 20 | 35 | 50 | 100 | ¥ | |||

k | 0,6 | 0,65 | 0,75 | 0,85 | 0,9 | 0,95 | 1 | |||

le it is necessary to determine according to table.2. Table 2 | ||||||||||

le = l / 2 | le = l | le = 2l | ||||||||

In the table,2 l = l / b, where l and b are respectively the maximum and minimum dimensions of the structure or its element in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the wind. Table 3 | ||||||||||

Wind direction and section sketches | b, grad | l / b | ||||||||

Rectangle | 0 | £ 1,5 | 2,1 | |||||||

³ 3 | 1,6 | |||||||||

40 - 50 | £ 0,2 | 2,0 | ||||||||

³ 0,5 | 1,7 | |||||||||

Diamond | 0 | £ 0.5 | 1.9 | |||||||

1 | 1,6 | |||||||||

³ 2 | 1,1 | |||||||||

Correct triangle | 0 | - | 2 | |||||||

180 | - | 1,2 | ||||||||

Table 4 | ||||||||||

Wind direction and section sketches | b, degrees | n( number of sides) | with Re & gt;4 × 105 | |||||||

Correct polygon | Optional | 5 | 1,8 | |||||||

6 - 8 | 1,5 | |||||||||

10 | 1,2 | |||||||||

12 | 1,0 | |||||||||

14 | Constructions and their elements and circular cylindrical surface( tanks, cooling towers, towers, chimneys), wires andropes, as well as round tubular and solid elements of through structures | where k - is determined from Table.1 of scheme 13; - determined according to the schedule:
For wires and cables( including those covered with ice) cx = 1,2 | 1. Re should be determined by the formula to the scheme 12 a, taking z = h, d - diameter of the structure.: for wooden structures D = 0.005 m;for brickwork D = 0,01 m;for concrete and reinforced concrete structures D = 0.005 m;for steel structures D = 0.001 m;for wires and cables with a diameter d D = 0,01d;for ribbed surfaces with ribs of height b D = b. 2. For corrugated coatings with f = 0.04. 3. For wires and cables d ³ 20 mm, free from ice, the value of cx is allowed to be reduced by 10% | |||||||

15 | Stand-alone flat lattice structures | , where - the aerodynamic coefficient of the i-th structural element;for profiles = 1.4;for tubular elements should be determined according to the schedule to scheme 14, while it is necessary to take le = l( see Table 2 of Scheme 13); Аi - the area of the projection of the i-th element of the structure; Ak is the area bounded by the contour of the | 1. The aerodynamic coefficients to schemes 15 to 17 are given for lattice structures with an arbitrary contour shape and 2. The wind load should be referred to the area bounded by the contour Ak. 3. The direction of the x axis coincides with the direction of the wind and perpendicular to the plane of the | |||||||

16 | construction. The row of parallel, parallel grid structures | . For windward construction, the coefficient c1 is determined in the same way as for circuit 15. For the second and subsequent constructions, c2 = cx1h. For trusses of pipes with Re ³ 4 × 105 h = 0,95 | 1. See note.1 - 3 to the scheme 15.2.Re should be determined by the formula to the scheme 12 a, where d is the average diameter of the tubular elements;z - allowed to be taken equal to the distance from the surface of the earth to the upper belt of the farm. 3. In the table to figure 16: h - minimum contour size;for rectangular and trapezoidal trusses h is the length of the least side of the contour;for round lattice structures h - their diameter;for elliptical structures close to them in outline, h is the length of the smaller axis; b - distance between neighboring farms. 4. The coefficient j should be determined in accordance with the instructions in Scheme 15 | |||||||

j | The value of h for trusses of profiles and pipes at Re equal to | |||||||||

1/2 | 1 | 2 | 4 | 6 | ||||||

0.1 | 0.93 | 0.99 | 1 | 1 | 1 | |||||

0.2 | 0.75 | 0.81 | 0.87 | 0.9 | 0.93 | |||||

0.3 | 0.56 | 0.65 | 0.73 | 0.78 | 0.83 | |||||

0.4 | 0,38 | 0.48 | 0.59 | 0.65 | 0.72 | |||||

0.5 | 0.19 | 0.32 | 0.44 | 0.52 | 0.61 | |||||

0.6 | 0 | 0.15 | 0,3 | 0,4 | 0,5 | |||||

17 | Lattice towers and spatial trusses | with c = cx( 1 + h) k1, where cx is defined in the same way ask for circuit 15; h - is defined in the same way as for circuit 16. | 1. See note.1 - 3 to the scheme 15.2.cf refers to the area of the contour of the windward face. 3. When the wind is directed along the diagonal of tetrahedral square towers, the coefficient k1 for steel towers from single elements should be reduced by 10%;for wooden towers of composite elements - increase by 10%. | |||||||

Sketch shapes of the contour cross-section and wind direction | k1 | |||||||||

1,0 | ||||||||||

0,9 | ||||||||||

1,2 | ||||||||||

18 | Vanes and inclined tubular elements located in the plane of the flow | cca = cx sin2 a, where cx is determined in accordance with the instructions toscheme 14 | - | |||||||

Cranes | Load limit values F, kN( tf) |

Suspended( manual and electrical) and bridge manual | 10( 1) |

Electric bridges: | |

for general purpose operation mode groups 1K-3K | 50( 5) |

general purpose and specialgroups of 4K-7K operation modes as well as foundry | 150( 15) |

special operating mode 8K groups with load suspension: | |

flexible | 250( 25) |

rigid | 500( 50) |

## APPENDIX 3 *

Mandatory

## SNOW LOAD DIAGRAMS ANDCOEFFICIENTS m

## ANNEX 4

Required

## SCHEMES OF WIND LOADS AND AERODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS WITH

## ANNEX 5

Mandatory

## REGIONS OF THE USSR TERRITORY FOR CLIMATE CHARACTERISTICS

Map 1 *

Regionalization of the territory of the Russian Federation by the weight of the snow cover

( Changed edition. Rev. No. 2).

###### Map 2

Zoning of the territory of the USSR by average wind speed, m / s, for the winter period

Map 3

Zoning of the territory of the USSR according to wind pressure

Map 4

Zoning of the territory of the USSR according to the thickness of the ice sheet

Map 5

Zoning of the territory of the USSR by the average monthlyair temperature, ° С, in January

Map 6

Zoning of USSR territory by mean monthly air temperature, ° С, in July

Map 7

Zoning of the territory of the USSR by the deviation of the average air temperature(in addition to cards 1 and 4)

## APPENDIX 6

Recommended

## DETERMINATION OF

BREAKDOWNS AND DISPLACEMENTS 1. In the determination of the

, the determination of the deflection and displacement of the

deflections and displacements, it is necessary to take into account all the main factors affecting their values (inelastic deformation of materials, formation of cracks, registration of deformed circuits, consideration of adjacent elements, compliance of knots of interfaces and bases).With sufficient justification, individual factors can be ignored or taken into account in an approximate way.

2. For structures of materials that have creep, it is necessary to take into account the increase in deflections in time. When limiting deflections on the basis of physiological requirements, only short-term creep should be taken into account, manifested immediately after the application of the load, and based on technological and constructive( with the exception of calculation taking into account the wind load) and aesthetic-psychological requirements, full creep.

3. When determining the deflections of columns of single-storey buildings and overpasses from horizontal crane loads, the design diagram of the columns should be taken taking into account the conditions of their fastening, considering that the column:

in buildings and covered overpasses does not have a horizontal displacement at the level of the upper support( if the coating does not createrigid in the horizontal plane of the disk, it is necessary to take into account the horizontal compliance of this support);

in open trestles is treated as a console.

4. In the presence of technological and transport equipment, causing oscillations of building structures and other sources of vibration in buildings( facilities), the limiting values of vibration displacement, vibration speed and vibration acceleration should be taken in accordance with the requirements of GOST 12.1.012-90;"Sanitary norms of vibration of workplaces" and "Sanitary permissible vibrations in residential buildings" of the Ministry of Health of the USSR.In the presence of high-precision equipment and instruments sensitive to the vibrations of the structures on which they are installed, the limiting values of vibration displacement, vibration speed, vibration acceleration should be determined in accordance with special technical conditions.

5. Calculated situations1 for which it is necessary to determine deflections and movements and their corresponding loads should be taken, depending on the basis for calculating the requirements.

_____________

1 Settlement situation is the complex of conditions that are taken into account when calculating design requirements for structures.

The settlement situation is characterized by the design scheme of construction, types of loads, the values of the coefficients of operating conditions and reliability factors, a list of limiting states that should be considered in this situation.

If the calculation is based on technological requirements, the design situation must correspond to the effect of loads affecting the operation of the process equipment.

If the calculation is based on design requirements, the design situation must correspond to the action of loads that can lead to damage to adjacent elements as a result of significant deflections and displacements.

If the calculation is made on the basis of physiological requirements, the design situation must correspond to the state associated with the structural variations and when designing it is necessary to take into account the loads influencing the structural variations limited by the requirements of these standards and the normative documents specified in clause 4.

If the calculation is madebased on aesthetic and psychological requirements, the design situation should correspond to the action of permanent and prolonged loads.

For the structures of coatings and ceilings designed with a construction lift and limiting the deflection with aesthetic and psychological requirements, the determined vertical deflection should be reduced by the size of the construction lift.

6. Deflection of elements of coatings and ceilings, limited on the basis of design requirements, should not exceed the distance( clearance) between the lower surface of these elements and the top of the partitions, stained-glass windows, window and door frames located under the bearing elements.

The gap between the lower surface of the coating and flooring elements and the top of the partitions located below the elements, as a rule, should not exceed 40 mm. In cases where the fulfillment of these requirements is associated with an increase in the rigidity of coatings and overlaps, it is necessary to avoid this increase by constructive measures( for example, placing partitions not under curved beams, but next to them).

7. If there are between the walls of the capital partitions( almost the same height as the walls), the values of l in pos.2, and tab.19 should be taken equal to the distances between the inner surfaces of the bearing walls( or columns) and these partitions( or between the internal surfaces of the partitions, figure 4).

Damn.4. Schemes for determining the values of l( l1, l2, l3) if there are between the walls of the

capital barriers a - one in the span;b - two in the span;1 - bearing walls( or columns);2 - capital partitions;3 - overlap( coating) before the application of the load;4 - overlap( coating) after application of the load;5 - reference lines of deflections;6 - fence

8. Deflections of rafter structures in the presence of suspended crane tracks( see Table 19, item 2, d) should be taken as the difference between deflections f1 and f2 of adjacent rafter structures( feature 5).

9. Horizontal movements of the frame must be defined in the plane of the walls and partitions, the integrity of which must be ensured.

For skeletons of multi-storey buildings with a height of more than 40 m, the skew of the storey cells adjacent to the stiffening diaphragms equal to f1 / hs + f2 / l( figure 6) should not exceed( see Table 22);1/300 for pos.2, 1/500 - for pos.2, a and 1/700 - for pos.2, b.

Damn.5. Scheme for determining the deflections of rafter structures in the presence of suspended crane tracks

1 - rafters, 2 - beam suspended crane track;3 - overhead crane;4 - initial position of rafter structures;f1 - deflection of the most loaded rafter;f2 - deflections of adjacent to the most loaded rafter structures

Devil.6. Diagram of skew of the storey cells 2 adjacent to the stiffening diaphragms 1 in the buildings with the bonded frame( the dashed line shows the initial frame structure before the load is applied)

## APPENDIX 7 *

Mandatory

## ACCOUNTABILITY OF BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES *

1. For the accountability of buildings and structures, characterized by the economic, social and environmental consequences of their refusals, three levels are established: I - elevated, II - normal, III - lowered.

Increased level of responsibility should be taken for buildings and structures, the failure of which can lead to severe economic, social and environmental consequences( oil and petroleum products tanks with a capacity of 10,000 m3 or more, trunk pipelines, production buildings with spans of 100 m and more,100 m and more, as well as unique buildings and structures).

The normal level of responsibility should be taken for buildings and structures of mass construction( residential, public, industrial, agricultural buildings and structures).

The reduced level of responsibility should be taken for the construction of seasonal or auxiliary purposes( greenhouses, greenhouses, summer pavilions, small warehouses and similar structures).

_____________

* This annex is section 5 of GOST 27751-88 with amendments approved by the Resolution of the State Committee of the Russian Federation on Architecture and Construction of 21.12.93 No. 18-54.

2. When calculating the load-bearing structures and bases, the liability factor gn should be taken into account, taken as equal to: for level I of responsibility, more than 0.95, but not more than 1.2;for Level II - 0.95;for level III - less than 0.95, but not less than 0.8.

The liability factor should be multiplied by the load effect( internal forces and movements of structures and bases caused by loads and impacts).

Note. This paragraph does not apply to buildings and structures, the accountability of which is established in the relevant regulatory documents.

3. Levels of responsibility for buildings and structures should also be taken into account when determining the requirements for the durability of buildings and structures, the nomenclature and the volume of engineering surveys for construction, the establishment of rules for acceptance, testing, operation and technical diagnostics of construction sites.

4. Assigning an object to a specific level of responsibility and selecting the values of the coefficient gn is made by the general designer in agreement with the customer.

## 2. WEIGHT OF STRUCTURES AND GROUPS

2.1.The normative value of the weight of prefabricated structures should be determined on the basis of standards, working drawings or passport data of manufacturing plants, other building structures and soils - according to the design dimensions and specific gravity of materials and soils, taking into account their humidity in the conditions of erection and operation of structures.

2.2.The factors of reliability for the load gf for the weight of building structures and soils are given in Table.1.

Table 1

Structure structures and type of soils

Load resistance factor gf Constructions: metal 1,05 concrete( with an average density of over 1,600 kg / m3), reinforced concrete, stone, reinforced, wooden 1,1 concrete( with an average density of 1600 kg / m3 and less), insulation, leveling and finishing layers( plates, materials in rolls, postings, screeds, etc.), performed: in the factory 1,2 on the buildingsite 1,3 Soils: in the natural 1,1 bulk 1,15Notes: 1. When checking the structure for stability of the anti-rollover position, as well as in other cases where a reduction in the weight of structures and soils may worsen the working conditions of the structures, a calculation should be made, taking for weightstructure or part thereof, the reliability factor for the load gf = 0.9.

2. When determining the loads from the ground, the loads from the stored materials, equipment and vehicles transferred to the ground should be taken into account.

3. For metal structures in which the forces of own weight exceed 50% of the total effort, gf = 1.1 should be taken.

## 9. OTHER LOADS

In the cases required by regulatory documents or established depending on the conditions of erection and operation of structures, it is necessary to take into account other loads not included in these norms( special technological loads, humid and shrinkage effects, wind influences that cause aerodynamically unstablefluctuations such as galloping, buffeting).