The modern variety of floor coverings involuntarily puts any person doing remodeling nt in the square art or house, before the "agony" of choice. Named producers, perfectly building their advertising policy, persistently recommend their products, which is really good. But, it happens that for this it is necessary to part with the amount that was not planned. And the old kind linoleum for some reason undeservedly pushed into the background, considering it an option for the poor. In fact, it has a number of advantages that the consumer most likely does not know. Perhaps it is worth more to be aware of this popular flooring, and find out which linoleum is best for the home.
- 1 History
- 2 Types linoleum
- 2.1 Linoleum
- 2.2 Polyvinylchloride( PVC), linoleum
- 2.3 Alkyd linoleum
- 2.4 Rubber linoleum( Relin)
- 2.5 nitrocellulose( kolloksilinovy) linoleum
- 3 What linoleum is best for home
- 3.1 Household linoleum
- 3.2 Semi-commercial linoleum
- 3.3 Commercial linoleum
- 3.4 Thicknessprotective layer of linoleum
- 3.5 Linoleum marking
- 4 How to choose linoleum correctly?
- 4.1 Video: How to choose the right linoleum for your home?
Linoleum is mistakenly attributed to modern and artificial materials, but the name hides its historical roots. The word linoleum consists of Latin: linum - meaning linen or linen, as well as oleum - oil. The linoleum patent was still in 1860 by Englishman Frederick Walton. Originally, this floor covering used a woven base of linen or jute, which was coated with oxidized vegetable oil in combination with cork flour. Technologies have constantly improved, manufacturers have learned to apply a picture on linoleum and in the beginning of XX century it was one of the most popular materials.
In connection with high cost of plant raw materials and development of chemical synthesis, in the 60s of the last century began to produce flooring rolls on a synthetic basis, which left the old name - linoleum, although this is a completely different material. In the 90s, they recalled the traditions of producing natural linoleum, and , the volume of of its output is constantly increasing, because it has a steady demand. Thus, under the name linoleum a very wide class of floor coverings has been combined, both natural and synthetic.
Types of linoleum
To easily navigate in the ocean of proposals and make the right choice, it is worth to learn about the types of existing linoleums and specifically which ones are suitable for home.
One of the best choices is a natural linoleum. For its production, only natural ingredients are used: linseed oil, wood flour, jute or linen cloth, natural wood tar, limestone. A rich palette of natural dyes together with modern technology allows the to paint in any color this remarkable coating. Natural linoleum has a number of undeniable advantages:
- High strength. Natural linoleum can withstand pressure up to 16 MPa .
- Flaxseed oil included in the composition makes this coating bactericidal.
- High wear resistance determines long service life: up to 30-50 years.
- Exceptionally natural ingredients determine its environmental friendliness.
- Natural linoleum does not absorb dirt and easily is cleaned by from various impurities with detergents.
- The static linoleum does not accumulate on the linoleum.
- Not afraid of ultraviolet rays, does not burn out of the sun.
- Low combustibility.
are used. With such an impressive list of advantages, natural linoleum is still not devoid of drawbacks:
- Natural linoleum has a high price comparable to a parquet board.
- In premises where a natural linoleum coating is planned, there should not be a high humidity , since the natural base is rotted.
- Low elasticity limits the use of natural linoleum in cold rooms and complicates its laying.
- Features of manufacturing technology limit the variety of patterns and ornaments.
- Only a laid linoleum of natural linoleum has a specific smell, which may not like everyone. However, after a few months the smell disappears.
For all adherents of eco-friendly housing, ready to go to high costs, natural linoleum will be an excellent choice for living quarters. Low moisture resistance limits its use in kitchens, in bathrooms and hallways.
Polyvinylchloride( PVC) linoleum
Linoleum made of PVC( international designation - PVC) is the most widely used. It can be either without a base or with different types of substrates:
- Fabric base. For , can use both natural jute and synthetic fabrics, for example, glass fabric. The top cover, which has a pattern, is made of PVC.Such a linoleum can have an impressive thickness - up to 5 mm.
- Non-woven base made of natural felt or synthetic materials can improve the thermal insulation properties, but in rooms with high traffic and high humidity it is not worth using such a linoleum, because it does not like intensive loads, and the porous base will absorb moisture perfectly.
- Foam base made of PVC.Such linoleum started to produce in the 90s of the last century, and this type of substrate is one of the most popular. The main porous layer of PVC perceives all loads and "forgives" small irregularities in the base, and the reinforcing fabric retains the geometric dimensions of the canvas. Apply foamed PVC can be chemical and more progressive mechanical method, which is better, since such a linoleum will not crumple under high loads.
Some types of linoleum are also manufactured, which combine several types of the above layers .Linoleum, which has several of them, is called heterogeneous, and one - homogeneous. The number of layers of and their purpose in linoleum for different purposes can differ greatly from each other.
The advantage of homogeneous linoleum is that its pattern is present at all depths, therefore, if it is unavoidably worn, the pattern will not be erased. The thickness of this linoleum can be from 1.5 to 3 millimeters, and it is designed for rooms with large cross-country traffic. Use it in apartments and houses is inexpedient. The main disadvantages of homogeneous linoleum are its high price, as well as the impossibility of drawing complex drawings.
Polyvinyl chloride linoleum has a number of advantages that explain its wide application.
- Linoleum made of PVC has a high elasticity, which greatly simplifies its laying.
- The variety of drawings and textures of PVC linoleum will allow to realize any idea of interior design.
- PVC linoleum has a reasonable price.
- Easily cleaned from dirt.
- Linoleum of well-known manufacturers does not have toxicity, which must be confirmed by the presence of a hygienic certificate.
The disadvantages of linoleum made of PVC are:
- When high temperatures occur shrinkage of linoleum occurs.
- Only after laying the linoleum PVC coating has an unpleasant specific smell, which disappears after several weeks of use.
Alkyd, more is called glyptal, linoleum is always manufactured on a fabric basis, which is modified by special technology with modified alkyd or glyftal resins with special fillers that improve the properties of the coating. Also make pigments and dyes that make the linoleum either monochrome or multicolored. Advantages of this kind of linoleum are:
- In comparison with PVC linoleum, glyptal have the best heat - and soundproofing properties.
- Such linoleum is extremely durable, they can serve 40-50 years.
- Pollution from such a coating is removed easier than with PVC.
The disadvantages of alkyd linoleums are:
- Low elasticity at temperatures close to zero.
- Alkyd linoleums require qualified laying.
- Insufficient fire safety greatly limits their use in residential areas.
Glyftal linoleum is widely used in transport: flooring in wagons, sea transport cabins, aircraft .
Rubber linoleum( Relin )
This linoleum is made in two layers: the bottom one is made from recycled rubber, the upper one is made from synthetic rubber, colored in various colors. Between these layers are connected with bituminous mastic. Such floor coverings have some advantages:
- Excellent water resistance makes it possible to cover the rhein in the most "wet" areas.
- High elasticity and strength.
- Excellent anti-slip properties.
- Long service life.
Rubber linoleums can be used near swimming pools, in garages, workshops, sports rooms and halls, but in residential areas their use is contraindicated, since they release harmful substances into the air.
Nitrocellulose( colloxylin ) linoleum
These types of linoleum are a single-layer without a base coat, produced by from nitrocellulose with the addition of various components: gypsum, curd, plasticizers and colorants. At present, such coatings from this material are not used because of increased fire hazard.
Which linoleum is better for the house
It is possible that such an abundance of information on the types of linoleum still more complicates the choice. Moreover, most modern linoleums are heterogeneous and can combine several different layers of .That is why European manufacturers have developed a special standard EN685 , in which linoleums are divided into classes depending on the strength characteristics and the field of application in those or other premises. Each class is denoted by a two-digit number code and its corresponding icon.
The first figure in the class indicates:
- 2 - linoleum is intended for residential premises.
- 3 - for office or commercial premises.
- 4 - for industrial premises.
The second figure in the class indicates the load that linoleum can withstand:
- 1 - low load.
- 2 - the average load.
- 3 - high load.4- very high load.
Linoleum, belonging to classes 21-23, is commonly called household linoleum. According to the EN685 it must have the following characteristics:
- Specific weight 1.25-2.25 kg / m 2.
- Thickness - from 0,15 to 3 mm.
- Flexibility and elasticity should be such that when winding a rod with a diameter of 45 mm should not be cracked.
- Sound absorption - not less than 13-18 dB .
- The water absorption of should be not more than 1-1,5%.
- Shrinkage during operation - no more than 0.2 mm per 1 meter.
The cost of household linoleum of famous manufacturers can be in the range of 3 to 10 euros per square meter.
Linoleum belonging to classes 31-34, called semi-commercial, and it is designed primarily for office and office space. Must have the following characteristics:
- Specific Gravity 1.6-2.5 kg / m 2.
- Elasticity and flexibility should be such that when winding a cylinder with a diameter of 10-40 mm in linoleum should not be formed cracks.
- Sound absorption of must be not less than 12-16 dB .
- Shrinkage during operation - no more than 0.1 mm per 1 meter.
- The service life, guaranteed by the manufacturer, is not less than 7-20 years.
The cost of semi-commercial linoleum is from 5 to 15 euros per me tr adrat. A small difference in the price of household and semi-commercial linoleum makes the expediency of its use for domestic purposes in those rooms where the increased load on the floor: kitchens, hallways and others.
If the linoleum belongs to the classes from 41 to 43, then it is called commercial. Its purpose is to use floor coverings in rooms with intensive movement of people and equipment. Such linoleum have hardened film-layer ( up to 0.8 mm), even lower shrinkage( 0.02-0.1 mm / m) and warranty service life( 10 to 25 years).
The relatively high cost of such linoleum( 10-40 euros per me tr adrat) combined with excessive technical characteristics for apartments and houses makes its use in residential premises inexpedient. Some commercial linoleums may have a special purpose:
- Sports coatings that are soft and resilient for good contact with sports shoes.
- Coatings that are resistant to chemical reagents and have bactericidal properties, which is very useful in medical institutions.
- Antislip coatings near pools and other areas with high humidity.
- Antistatic coatings.
Thickness of the linoleum protective layer
Most modern linoleums have on their surface a strong protective film from pure PVC .It is its thickness should be taken into account when choosing linoleum depending on the purpose of the room. Manufacturers offer the following gradation:
- film thickness of 0.15 mm is completely suitable for the use of such linoleum in living rooms and bedrooms.
- The protective layer of 0.20 mm will be optimal for children's rooms.
- 0,25 mm - for kitchens , hallways and corridors.
- 0.30 mm - office and office space with medium load.
- Protective layer 0,50 mm or more - for rooms with high and very high load.
When choosing a linoleum, all the technical data must be provided by the seller together with the necessary certificates: conformity and hygienic. Manufacturers of quality linoleum on the reverse side always apply their logo, as well as all the information that will greatly help the buyer:
- The linoleum class will help to make the right choice.
- Lot number - if you plan to purchase a large amount of linoleum, then it is desirable that it was from one lot.
- Date of production.
Also the manufacturer can put additional pictograms, which speak about the special properties of the coating. Such possible designations are shown in the figure.
How to choose linoleum correctly?
Now that there is complete clarity with the types of existing linoleums, you can specify a number of important points that will help make the right choice.
- Linoleum should be purchased only in specialized stores where all storage requirements are complied with, and there is a complete set of accompanying documents confirming compliance with standards and safety.
- Depending on the purpose of the room, a linoleum class is chosen and it is better to do it with some margin: one step higher than necessary.
- Special attention should be paid to the thickness of linoleum, its strength and the presence of an upper protective layer.
- It is necessary to strive to ensure that the flooring of linoleum has no joints or there was a minimum. This is achieved by carefully measuring the premises and selecting the rolls of the desired width.
- The modern variety of colors, textures, linoleum drawings allows you to make any choice, but you need to take into account the purpose of the room, the pleasant colors for the comfortable location and preferences of all household members in the .
- It is better to use glossy linoleum in rooms with possible strong contaminants.
- When buying, you must carefully inspect the entire surface of the linoleum and make sure the in the absence of damage.
- Poor foundation preparation and illiterate linoleum flooring can negate all the advantages of this coating.