Both the construction of new housing, and the overhaul in the house or apartment implies a considerable volume of electrical works. This includes the organization of the input of a common power line, the creation of a ground loop and equalization of potentials, the installation of a switchboard with the device consumed energy, the installation of in-house electrical networks and wiring junction boxes, and finally the installation of lighting devices and user electronic fittings - switches and sockets.
On a large account , this, of course, is a task for electricians-specialists . However, many works can be done on their own, provided that the home master has basic concepts in physics, electrical engineering , organization of internal electrical networks and skills of general and electrical installation works. But the still is very important to know exactly where to place and at what height to install sockets and switches. There are a lot of disputes on this issue of
Basic parameters for the proper installation of the
sockets and circuit breakers
- 3 : uneasy task - the correct placement of outlets and switches in the kitchen
It should be noted immediately that the that find the exact unified standards for heightSETTING switches and sockets - is difficult, for the simple reason, that they do not exist. Some references to the existing "European standards" - are just a desire to copy the established fashionable trend of "euro-repair", the established tradition of installing electrical appliances in Western Europe.
By the way, the installation standards existed up to a certain time - they were guided by the builders when building residential buildings of mass multi-storey building. Then all the sockets were placed at an altitude of 900 ÷ 1000 mm from the of the surface of the floor( on the level of the of the lowered arm), and the switches are 1600 ÷ 1700 mm( at the level of the eye).In most apartments of old construction, can be seen with as far as before. Very many owners of housing are accustomed to it consider its convenient and in no way intend to remodel.
Than such parameters are explained - now with is difficult to show. Perhaps this was due to security considerations - all the sockets with wires coming from them are always in the field of view of the tenants, and children can not reach the switches. On the other hand, the most dangerous points are still available to children - sockets, and there are no special safety considerations, but the light can not be extinguished by the child for up to 8 ÷ 10 years. Another possible reason for this installation is that electrical wiring has always been carried out in the premises of the on top of the walls, and such placement of switches and sockets allowed to save significantly on the cable( on a scale of mass construction conducted in those years, the economy was serious).
Nevertheless, , today more adopted European ones, rather, not standards, but the tradition of installing these elements of electric fittings. What are they?
Some construction guides give the following recommendations( with taking into account planning during the construction phase of the house):
- Sockets - 400 ÷ 450 mm from the level of the rough floor( slabs of interfloor overlapping).Thus, after pouring the screed and installing the finishing floor, the height will be about 300 mm.
- Switches - 1000 ÷ 1050 mm from roughing surface, respectively, about 900 mm after finishing of finishing works.
Than it is convenient? Sockets and included power cables are not conspicuous and do not spoil the appearance of the room, and turn on or off the light can be freely lowered down the hand. There is the opportunity to accustom to the independence of children( certainly under control from adults) - the switch is in reachfor them.
It should be noted immediately that such "standards" exist only for ordinary living rooms. In other places, for example, in kitchens, the rules will be completely different - will talk about this below.
There are special requirements for the installation of outlets and switches in institutions related to children - in schools, kindergartens and like .There, to avoid uncontrolled by the teachers or educators of the action of children with electricity, these reinforcement elements are installed equally high - at a height of not less than 1800 mm.
So, if you only talk about the height of the installation of outlets and switches in the living areas, then any owner of the apartment or house has three ways:
1 - During repair - do not change the location of any sockets, or switches, or the original installation to carry out the usual"Soviet standards" if so seems more convenient and safer.
2 - Convert the arrangement of the elements of the armature to the European traditions, which were mentioned above.
3 - Provide your own location of , based on personal preferences and amenities - it does not contradict the existing rules.
For other parameters, the installation of restrictions and recommendations is much greater - they are set out in the current electrical installation regulations( EEE), and they must be taken into account:
- The minimum height of sockets in residential premises is not regulated, the maximum - no higher than 1000 mm. Even their location at the floor level is allowed, provided that special skirting boards with are used with cable channels made of non-combustible materials and special types of sockets.
- It is recommended to install sockets in the production premises at a height of 800 to 1000 mm, but with the top wiring - it is possible to raise them up to 1500 mm. About children's and school institutions have already been said - at least 1800 mm from the floor.
- In conditions of an apartment, especially when children are living in it, it is highly recommended( although it is not a mandatory rule) to use sockets with protective rods that automatically cover the holes when pulling out the plug.
- Wiring and electrical appliances should not be located closer than 500 mm from gas supply risers, closer than 100 mm from window or door openings , less than 150 mm from the ceiling level. If you plan to install the false ceiling ( suspension or tension), then both the wiring and the junction box must be below its level.
- It is not recommended to install sockets in bathrooms. If you still can not do without it, then it should be mounted no less than 600 mm from the door of the shower cubicle or the bathroom. A special condition is the use of special sockets for wet rooms( with increased hermetic housing and spring-loaded protective covers), and with the obligatory supplying the with the with an leakage current( differential current) of no more than 30 mA .
To finish the issue with the bathroom, you can add that to install the sockets close to the floor surface - do not follow."Design" in such conditions does not play a special role, and it will be more convenient to use a hairdryer, curling iron or electric shaver from an outlet located on the one height, or even one and a half meters. With , this absolutely eliminates the placement of the outlet over the washbasin sink.
- Switches are mounted, as a rule, on the wall at the entrance, from the side of the door handles. The height of the installation is from 800 to 1700 mm. If necessary, you can install them and higher, providing , for example the ability to turn on with a cord. Very often in small rooms( in hallways, kitchens, in rooms with a small area), it is necessary to unite sockets and switches by the units - then the optimal height of such a block is about 900 mm from the floor - the "golden mean".
In any case, , no matter what method of arrangement of the electric fittings, it will be necessary to change old sockets for new, so-called "European format" .They have a hole diameter - 0.8 mm wider than that of the old domestic ones, and the distance between the contact pins of the corresponding plug. Such sockets withstand much larger loads - they are usually calculated currents of 10 or 16 A , respectively, on the load of 2.2 kW or 3.5 kW, respectively.( For comparison, the old sockets withstood the 6 A , that is, only 1.3 kW, which is clearly not enough in the current saturation of human life with electrical appliances).
In addition, if an is wound to the old socket location , the ground loop will have to deal with this closely - most of today's electrical appliances have t rech contact grounding plugs for providing user safety( for some high-power household appliances, connection to ground loop is simply a prerequisite).Several more details about the grounding system - in a special publication of our portal.
Video: where to place wall sockets and switches
Some nuances of installing the cable part
Once the general repair is done, then it is worth checking the cable part - if the wiring is aluminum, its is recommended to be replaced by copper, with a cross-sectional area of at least 1.5mm².This section of the should be sufficient for fairly high currents. True, if the installation of household appliances with increased capacity is planned, it will be necessary to lay more powerful lines.
| Conductor cross-section |
copper wire, mm ²
| maximum current |
with continuous load, A
| maximum power |
| rated current |
| limit current |
| scope of application |
|1.5||19||4.1||10||16||Lighting, Signaling Devices|
|2.7||27||5.9||16||25||Outlet Units, Floor Heating Systems|
|4||38||8.3||25||32||Climatic Equipment, Water Heaters,tiralnye and dishwashers|
|6||46||10.1||32||40||electric stoves and electric oven|
|10||70||15.4||50||63||input power line|
Probably, it makes sense to stop a bit and on the correct placement of electrical wiring.
- own junction box. To each socket ( group of outlets) or to the circuit breaker there must be a connection from an individual junction box. Making long hidden parallel connections from one to an socket to another is unreasonable, and in some cases can be even dangerous - this can easily lead to a reboot of this line with all the ensuing consequences.
- From the installation boxes with , sockets or switches must be strictly vertical wiring. This is explained simply - you can always visually determine the place of passage of power cables in the thickness of the wall. If the line is laid in any order - at an angle( as in the figure of item No. 3) or even vertically, but with a displacement( position No. 2) from the location of the outlet( switch), it can become an object of latent danger.
After some time, and this happens quite quickly, the location of such non-standard wiring is forgotten even by by its masters. Moreover, this will become a "surprise" for the new owners of the apartment. When trying, for example, to harmlessly hang a mirror or shelf, it is likely that a drill will fall on the with a live power line with all the sad consequences - a short circuit and the need for extensive wiring repairs.
- But on the ceiling surface of the floor slab, if you intend to install a hanging or tension ceiling, the wiring can be placed arbitrarily, usually at the shortest distance. If a NYM type cable is used, it does not even require additional protective insulation - it can be attached directly to plastic dowels-clamps .Cables of a different type( ВВГнг or ВВГ ) are placed in a corrugated plastic pipe of the required diameter.
- On the floor, under its decorative coating, power cables can also be located arbitrarily, according to the shortest distance. However, there are also special reservations. So, if the floor is laid on wooden logs, the wiring, regardless of the type of cable, is allowed only in metal pipes, conventional or corrugated.
If the wiring is to be poured with a concrete tie, then its , as a rule, is placed in a corrugated plastic pipe.
- Next question - how often should the sockets be installed, are there any norms on this?
There is no specific answer. You can find recommendations - to install them on 1 piece for 6 ÷ 10 square meters of area. However, apparently, these "standards" are somewhat outdated, since is equipped with housing electrical appliances constantly grows .Therefore, probably, it is advisable to think in advance of the placement of basic devices and devices, set certain reserve, in order to exclude the use of all kinds of tees or extension cords in the future. Best of all, if in advance a plan is drawn up with a fully thought out arrangement of household items and the location of power points.
- And still one very important note, and is more precise - kind advice. When conducting repair and electrical installation work, it is necessary not to be too lazy to take pictures of all lines of cable laying, placement of junction boxes and other elements of the home electrical network, until they are hidden by plaster or finishing materials. It is desirable to make the pictures so that there is the possibility of binding hidden objects to stationary elements. For example, with the dimensioning of the window or door of the opening, the corner of the room, the heating stand and etc .- so that you can quickly and accurately find the right site if you need any emergency, repair or maintenance work.
If is planned to lay the electrical wiring in the wooden house , it is better to refer to the special publication of our portal, in which this question is set out in more detail.
Features of installation of outlets and switches on the kitchen
The kitchen is a special room for many reasons. Firstly, in terms of the degree of humidity and saturation with evaporation, it differs significantly from all other rooms. And secondly, modern cuisine is the focus of the maximum concentration of all kinds of household appliances. Many electrical appliances in the process of cooking or other economic operations are used simultaneously, so the level of total load is usually the highest here.
The table below shows the characteristics of the basic kitchen electrical appliances - you can estimate the level of energy consumption in the performance of certain household work. Taking into account, that for many of them needs separate power lines, then it is possible to imagine how many connection points need to be equipped in the kitchen( of course, that the tees in such conditions are absolutely unacceptable and represent a serious fire hazard):
|household appliance||Average power consumption||Features of power connection|
|Cooker or hob electric||from 3500 to 12000 W||Individually padded power line|
|Electric oven||2500 to 10000 W|
|Automatic washing machine||1500 to 3000 W|
|Water heater||2500 to 7000 W|
|Dishwasher||1500 to 3500 W|
|Microwave oven||700 to 2500 W||It is permissible to switch onto the usual 16 A socket|
|Refrigerator( peak value - only at the moment of starting)||from 500 to 2000 W|
|Electric kettle||from 700 to 1500 W|
|Kitchen processor||from 500 to 1500 W|
|Baker, steamer, P.||700 to 2000 W|
|Toaster||to 1000 W|
|Cooker hood||from 500 to 1500 W|
|Waste shredder||from 400 to 1000 volts|
It is obvious that the outlets need a lot. In addition, it makes sense to think about the installation of several additional switches - for example, for the waste shredder installed in the kitchen sink and for additional illumination of the working space in the area of the cutting table, plate, sink.
Here about any standards on the height of the installation of speech sockets can not go - their location should, primarily , provide convenience, the ability to access when necessary, safety of use, maximum protection from moisture, for stationary equipment - stealth posting wiring. There are a lot of options here - one of them is shown in the picture:
It is clear that there are many options for placing built-in appliances, and if still add to this the variety of desktop electrical appliances and the features of their usefor example, there are mistresses, in which favorite kitchen accessories are constantly "registered" on the desktop), then most likely, the spirit of is absolutely the same scheme is not there is .Therefore, there can not be any copying here - the plan for placing the equipment and laying the wiring to it is compiled by each owner individually, but with the taking into account the general principles.
- The power of the supplied power lines( cross section of copper wires) has already been mentioned - it is enough to compare the data from the first and second of the above above the tables. However, , given is still one figure, by which you can determine this issue.
An important condition is that the total power of all s supplied by the to the kitchen of the lines should provide a large margin for the simultaneous inclusion of all points of consumption. This in practice, of course, should in no case be allowed, but insurance is still necessary.
- For the hob( electric stove) and for the oven ( if the are independent of each other) , special power sockets are installed, rated for a maximum current of 32 - 40 A. The same, if cooker and ovenare dependent on each other.
- If the kitchen has a storage heater with a capacity of more than 3.5 kW, then remember to also connect it to a power outlet, or to a power outletwall automatic machine in a protective box. This unit works in automatic mode almost constantly, and the socket does not need it especially.
- Installation of sockets for other built-in home appliances can be envisaged at several levels:
- On the wall, at the height of the no more than 100 mm above the floor level - this will allow these elements to be placed behind the standard removable furniture base.
- In the kitchen cabinets - provided that there are no pull-out or folding elements in this piece of furniture - shelves, drawers, brackets and ., Which can hook on the electrical cable.
- On walls under the sink - at the greatest possible distance from water and sewer pipes. The socket in this case must be necessarily sealed with a waterproof cover.
- On the wall above the kitchen cupboards. There are usually outlets for hoods, additional lighting devices, and sometimes for built-in microwave ovens or refrigerators. The height of the sockets in this case is not less than 50 mm above the level of the upper surface of the cabinet.
- For connection of desktop kitchen appliances, the sockets are placed on the wall, approximately in 100 mm, from the level of the ( ) as a rule, it is 1150 mm above the floor( if desired, it can be higher, up to 1400 mm).In this case, the sockets should never be above the sink or above the hob - remove them at least 250 ÷ 300 mm sideways.
Instead of such wall mounting of the outlets, has now started to use special retractable or folding modules - in the form of opening "books" or sliding px for and connecting "columns" with sockets.
It is very convenient - and the wall surface is "clean", and the socket appears only as needed, and even when using the device, the connection point is removed from the table surface.
Which else principles should be taken into account when placing the outlets:
- Never the socket for the embedded equipment can be placed directly behind the installed device - it must be carried aside, topor down.
- The distance from the appliance to the power outlet must not exceed 1000 mm.
- All, without exception, lines going to the kitchen should have their own circuit breakers and RCD devices.
When planning the laying of power lines in the kitchen, of course, it is necessary to start from the real characteristics of household appliances. Probably, it would be better to apply to an electrical organization - specialists should help to draw up a project with taking into account all the nuances and security requirements. Based on this scheme it will be possible to compile the drawing with the placement of outlets on the terrain to determine the places for making rosettes from in and cutting shrouds to them.
It is possible that there will be an opportunity to save a few on laying the lines. For example, if the total power of washing machines and dishwashers does not exceed 4 kW, they can be "planted" on a single power line with a 2.5 mm² wire. Often one line is sufficient for the refrigerator and of a specific socket outlet. However, the conclusions should still be made by a professional in this matter.
Video: a difficult task - the correct placement of outlets and switches on the kitchen