More not so long ago, some 20 years ago, air conditioners were considered destiny or big bosses, or very wealthy citizens. In fact - these climatic settings stood in the "high" offices, luxury hotel rooms or, much less often - in 's own accommodation of wealthy people .However, at the present time convenience of such household appliances has been appreciated by the widest segments of the population, it has ceased to be inaccessible for the price, and now no one is surprised by the air conditioners standing practically ubiquitously .
As a rule, companies engaged in the sale of climate equipment, in most cases, take on and concerns for its installation, debugging and commissioning. Of course, this service is not free, and its cost can be quite significant even against the background of the price of the air conditioner itself. Therefore, probably, potential buyers often worry about the question - is it necessary to resort to the help of masters? Can I install the air conditioner by myself?
There is no single answer to this question. And the conditioners themselves are different, and the levels of technical preparedness of owners of housing can vary significantly. In addition, the specific location of the living quarters in which the installation of such a device is planned is very important - very often it is simply impossible to make an independent installation without specialized equipment, equipment or construction equipment.
A for to immediately evaluate the complexity of the task, although would need to understand the operation of the air conditioning unit a little - for account what is the sharp cooling of air passing through ?
Basic principles of
for the operation of a domestic air conditioner
Contents of the article
- 1 Basic principles of the operation of a domestic air conditioner
- 2 Basic types of domestic air conditioners
- 2.1 Monobloc air conditioners
- 2.2 Split systems
- 3 How to conduct an air conditioning installation by yourself
- 3.1 Mounting a window monoblock air conditioner
- 3.2 Video: installation of the window air conditioner - monoblock
- 3.3 Sequence of installation of the split system
- 3.4 Video:work and typical errors when installing
- 3.5 Video: flaring copper pipes
- 3.6 Video: recommendations of professionals for installing the air conditioner
- 3.7 Video: a short installation course from the manufacturer of air conditioners
If to argue from the position of physical patterns, then in order for onethe of the of the balanced system has cooled, then on the other site this must be compensated by the corresponding heating. How can this be achieved?
It is known to all that evaporation of a liquid from the surface of an object is always accompanied by heat absorption and, correspondingly, by rapid cooling of this surface. Suffice it to recall that, for example, a wet palm feels much cooler than a dry palm. Wet compresses on the forehead of the sick with temperature increase - this is also one of the practical techniques of using this principle. Conversely, the condensation of steam into the liquid state passes with the release of heat. Hence, it is necessary to create conditions that in one single system the liquid in one area actively evaporates, and on another - under the influence of some external influence it condenses, giving away heat. This is how almost all refrigerators, freezers and air conditioners are built.
Schematic diagram of the operation of any air conditioner is given on the following figure:air conditioning unit works
This unit can be conditionally divided into two halves - external and internal .In split systems this partitioning occurs "literally" - with division into corresponding blocks. In monoblock models this is not so noticeable visually, since the whole design is arranged in a single package, but the principle of operation does not change.
So, both in the outer and inner parts of the air-conditioning unit there is a tubular radiator, however, they perform exactly the opposite functions. In the outdoor unit it plays the role of a condenser, and in the indoor unit it plays the role of a condenser. Between them, they are connected by leaky pipelines .Due to this closed circuit, the - refrigerant is continuously pumped through the compressor using the compressor.
The main requirement for such refrigerant is a sufficiently high, in comparison with atmospheric gases, boiling point, no probability of freezing( transition to solid aggregate state), high volatility. At the beginning of the production of refrigeration units and air conditioners, ammonia was most often used in this capacity. However, the vapors of this chemical compound are very dangerous for the human body, and therefore with time it was ubiquitous replaced by freons - special synthetic gases( or gas mixtures) designed specifically for such purposes. Until recently, most air conditioners used freon R-22, but in a number of countries its use is already prohibited, as a substance leading to the destruction of the ozone layer of the Earth. More modern, perfect and safe is Freon R-410A.The boiling point, that is, the active transition from liquid to gaseous state at normal atmospheric pressure, is approximately minus 50 ° C .
However, as is known from the course of thermodynamics, the process of phase transition of a substance from one aggregate state to another depends not only and not so much on temperature as on pressure. This means that by means of special devices it is necessary to create conditions for active condensation of refrigerant from outside, respectively, evaporation inside the room. This is achieved by the operation of the compressor and the presence of a special throttle device( thermostatic valve).
If you look at the operation cycle in more detail, it looks like this:
- At the compressor inlet, the refrigerant has a gaseous state at a relatively low pressure.
- The compressor provides freon movement through the system, while significantly increasing the compression ratio before entering the radiator of the condenser. The increase in pressure, of course, is accompanied by a significant increase in temperature. The cold outside air flow, fed by the fan, removes heat, while simultaneously activating the process of condensation of the refrigerant - its transition into semi-liquid state.
- Moving through the pipes, Freon passes through the throttling device before the inlet to the evaporator - a thermostatic valve. For account of a special configuration of the passage, the pressure in the pipeline drops sharply, which causes a rapid practically avalanche-like boiling of the refrigerant with its evaporation, transition to a gaseous state and, accordingly, a sharp drop in temperature.
- The indoor unit fan provides air flow through the radiator of the evaporator. with its cooling.
- From the evaporator, freon enters again into the compressor unit, thus the cycle closes.
The design of the throttling device can be different - from the capillary tube to the complex multi-pass valve, which allows not only to precisely regulate the cooling temperature of Freon. Such a mechanism zm sp especially "redirect" the operation of the units, turning the evaporator into a capacitor and vice versa - this is used when switching many models of air conditioners in the "winter" mode - on the room heating.
Undoubtedly, modern air conditioners are high-tech devices with a lot of additional control, control, service functions, but the principle of their work is the same.
The main types of air conditioners
It is impossible to understand the rules for installing air conditioners unless, in addition to the operating principle, the design features of the various types of these household devices are not understood. First of all, all air conditioners can be divided into two large categories - one-piece ( assembled in one housing) and split systems ( having two separate units or more).
Monoblock air conditioners
The whole concept of the air conditioner is assembled in one housing. The "external" and "internal" operating units will separate the partition , which in many models is adjustable, allowing air to flow from the room to the outside and back for ventilation or recuperation.
They can also differ in the way they are installed:
- Window air conditioners - the name speaks for itself. The unit is installed in the window opening, so that the main part of the housing is outside, and only the control panel and of the shutters remain in the room to guide the cooled airflow.
Advantages like and schemes are obvious:
- All internal pipelines are already assembled in the factory, refilling freon is carried out there, that is, the installation of the air conditioner is greatly simplified, and the is basically , togeneral construction or carpentry.
- Such models allow working in the forced ventilation mode of the room.
- The on has such low air conditioners, and given the absence of the need for complex installation, is the best option for in terms of efficiency. .
There are also a few shortcomings.
- A fairly large candy bar seriously reduces the intensity of the light flux from the window, reducing the natural illumination of the room( often to avoid this, the monoblocks are mounted in a specially made opening in the wall).
- By itself, the air conditioner becomes a "cold bridge" in the winter from the street to the room. It is necessary to think over its dismantling at this time with sealed seal opening, or somehow differently solve the problem of thermal insulation.
- This air conditioner does not fit well into the system of double-glazed windows, unless, of course, when installing PVC windows, its installation was not thought out in advance.
- The monoblock conditioner is "tied" to one place, and can not always evenly distribute the cooled air throughout the to the volume of the room. In addition, often this is hampered by window curtains, curtains, blinds and , such as .
- As a rule, such air conditioners are distinguished by a rather high noise level.
- Mobile monoblock air conditioners - mobile( usually - equipped with wheels for ease of movement) devices that are installed as needed in a particular room. Externally. Typically, the resembles a nightstand from the system guide blinds on the cabinet and control devices.
In one case both condenser and evaporator are arranged. It is mandatory to have a flexible hose to divert the warm air from the condenser outwards, out of the room.
Advantages of this type of air conditioners:
- Completely eliminates the need for complex installation - no connections, seals, gas stations, electrical connections and .All by the principle of "plug in and use", it is enough just to pull the flexible sleeve out through the window or hole in the wall or the window unit.(There are, however, more complex models that even have an external unit, but this kind of thing can even be attributed to the split systems, since the installation of such air conditioners takes more than one hour, and they can only be called mobile with very large"Stretch").
- It is possible to rearrange the air conditioner from premises in room , take it with you to the dacha, it's quite easy to clean up after the need for storage in winter.
Disadvantages of the "mobile" scheme:
- Mobility - rather conditional, since it is limited by the length of the corrugated hose for the output of heated air. Usually it is not more than 1,5 ÷ 2 m from the window.
- Water condensate, obtained with cooling air, is not discharged outside, but accumulates in the air conditioning pan. Thus, regular maintenance is required - draining the accumulated water, otherwise the device simply stops.
- These air conditioners are quite noisy.
- The cost of such a device is very high, comparable to the price of a quality split system with incommensurably lower performance.
- Whatever one may say, this kind of air conditioning clutters the room, especially if the is a small area of the .
Of all modern air conditioners, they are now the most common. Their main feature is the condensation units and and and , the fusions are made in different housings and spaced apart - installed outside and inside the room. In this case, all the noisiest parts of the air conditioner( in particular - the compressor unit) will take on the street, that is, the overall noise level of this air conditioner is minimal.
What is the approximate arrangement of air conditioners, executed on the principle of the split system ?Of course, different manufacturers and different models may have their own characteristics, but the general scheme is approximately the same.
For starters - outdoor unit.
Split System Unit Diagram Fan( Item 1) on the motor axis serves to create, as required, an airflow to remove heat from the ( 2 ) radiator condenser
Refrigerant transfer and maintenance of the requiredpressure in the circuit of its circulation provides the compressor( item 3).This unit can be a piston ( cheaper and noisier) or spiral( more expensive, but is safer than , especially in conditions of low air temperatures).
The electronics module( item 4) - by the way, can be located not in the external, but in the indoor unit, where it will be less subject to the influence of the external environment. Ensures the correct operation of all electrical and electronic systems and mechanisms.
Mandatory element - thermostatic expansion valve( key 5).On the , this illustration shows a variant using the four-way valve, which is typical for the winter-summer models, operating both for air cooling and for .
As rule , on right of the end part of the external unit from below( item 6) there are choke connections through which the connection to the indoor unit is made. For greater safety, this assembly is usually covered by a protective cover( key 8). Normally, on the same side, only on top, is the terminal part for electrical switching of both units.
Before entering the main line, a special freon filter is usually installed in the compressor, which should not allow small particles, such as copper chips or other inclusions, to enter the system together with the coolant.
Now - the structure and layout of the indoor unit. However, if there is usually a monotony with the external block, then several options are possible, depending on the particular type of the split-system.
- So, air conditioners can be wall-mounted - the most common in a residential environment. The indoor unit is placed on a wall in a user-friendly location.
- If it is required to organize cooling and ventilation of air in several rooms, often resorts to to install the channel , which is located usually above the suspended ceiling.
- The block of the split system is placed in one plane with the ceiling and ensures a uniform air distribution in all directions. Such conditioners fit very well into the interior of rooms with suspended ceilings of modular design.
- The indoor floor-to-ceiling type indoor units, as the name implies, is placed either vertically on the floor along the wall, or horizontally on the ceiling plane.
- In some public areas, it is not possible to use walls or ceilings for placing blocks( eg museums, exhibition halls, historic buildings) or the need to install a unit in the center of the room is prevalent to evenly distribute air flows. In these cases, the resorts to the to install the split system with a column-type unit.
- Finally, one external unit can be equipped with several internal ones of one type or another. This kit is called the multi-split system .
Nevertheless, as already mentioned, in the conditions of private houses and apartments, currently the most -common are the wall-mounted split-system .Schematic diagram of this particular block will be considered below:
- The external plastic casing ( item 1) of the unit is essentially a grate with air intake openings. This panel is easily removed for preventive maintenance.
- Underneath is a film tr g gr air purification( item 2) - polymer fine mesh for detaining airborne dust, pet hair and .Such a filter should be regularly cleaned - usually at least once a month.
- In many air conditioners, fine filters and( or) air deodorization filters are also installed( key 3).They can be of different types - coal, electrostatic and others.
- The movement of air flows in the room provides a built-in fan( item 4), which, as a rule, has the possibility of multi-stage speed control.
By the way, on the intensity of the air flow, in many ways depends on the comfort of the perception of the microclimate in the room. So, with an increase in the speed of air movement, you can save on much higher energy costs for its cooling( the effect of a conventional fan):
| Air speed |
flow m / s
|It's the same - km / h|| Sensible cooling effect |
( minus degrees C)
- The evaporation and quenching process takes place in the evaporative unit radiator( key 5) - a system of thin tubes with refrigerant circulating over them.
- The direction of the air flow is set by the shutter systems. The horizontal( key 6) controls the movement of the of the cooled air in the vertical plane. Can stand still or change the its position in accordance with the selected program of work. Vertical blinds( key 8) direct the flow in a horizontal direction. For inexpensive models, they are most often regulated manually, and in some premium air conditioners, the remote control capability is implemented.
- Indicating and control panel( item 7) - usually includes a remote control receiver window, several LEDs and an indicator panel. It displays the operating modes of the air conditioner, signals possible malfunctions or system malfunctions. Sometimes on the panel can be located several buttons for manual control of the system.
In the diagram they are not visible, but several important elements are required to be mentioned still :
- In the bottom part behind, under the decorative casing, there are two copper pipelines with switching fittings - for connection to the external block.
- The process of intensive air cooling in the room is always accompanied by abundant condensation on the radiator tubes. The condensed moisture drains into a special tray, from where it is removed outward along the padded drainage tube.
- Under the decorative cover, the electronics board and the switching panel are hidden to connect the electrical part of the split-system. Here, a network cable is connected to connect the supply voltage and the wires that connect the outdoor unit to the indoor unit.
After reader got an idea about the design and principles of the operation of domestic air conditioners, it will be easier for him to understand the rules of their installation.
How to install the air conditioner with your hands
In order not to cause readers unnecessary illusions, you need immediately to say that the installation of any air conditioner( except, perhaps, mobile) is a task of a high level of complexity and increased danger. This is due to the fact that the process with is worried by mounting the very heavy blocks, and often work is carried out at high altitude, the that the requires special care and the qualification of the installer.
In addition, we must not forget that air conditioners are complex equipment, the installation of which must be carried out only by specialists. Thus, an independent installation, with a probability close to 100%, will deprive the owner of any warranty obligations tv manufacturer as part service , and to carry out replacement or repair work in detecting factory rejection.
If the installation of the monoblock is not connected with piping, drying, refueling and sealing of the circuit, when installing the of the split system, this entire technologically complex specific process will fall on the installer. And here are required special tools , which, as a rule, does not happen in the usual "arsenal" of the home master, and high skills of performing such operations.
So, before undertaking an independent installation of the air conditioner, it is necessary to repeatedly and deeply think out the complexity of the upcoming operations, soberly assess their capabilities, so that it does not turn out that saving on the call of the assembly team can result in global losses in the form of completely damaged equipment.
Nevertheless , the article will consider the main technological receptions for installing air conditioners - window monoblocks and wall split systems .
Installation of the window monoblock air conditioner
The main difficulty in installing the " of the " " - correctly choose the place under it, cut and arrange the opening , securely secure in it block. Other difficulties - with pipe switching and refueling of the system, no - the air conditioner, as a rule, goes on sale in a fully ready for operation form.
The picture shows basic principles placement of the window monoblock. The height should not be less than 750 mm. The distance from the rear radiator of the outer part to any obstacle is not less than 500 mm. The air conditioner can be built in the window or in aperture , done in the wall. But in this case, the thickness of the wall should not exceed 250 mm, otherwise the side blinds of the air intake involved in cooling the condenser radiator will be closed.
- The block must be installed under with a slight slope outward, about 1 degree. It is necessary that the formed condensate freely flow through the drain pipe to the street, without accumulating in the pan in large quantities.
- On top of the outside air conditioning must be covered with a visor - from atmospheric precipitation and direct sunlight, especially if windows face south or southwest. However, , this protection should in no case interfere with the free circulation air from all sides of the unit.
- If the air conditioner is to be installed in the window, then it is necessary to choose the optimum location for it - so that the gaps between the posts and the frame rails and the block body are minimal. It should be noted that on each side of the unit there should be no less than 100 mm for servicing the device, free passage of air.
- Next, proceed to the design aperture under the air conditioner. Here will have to carpentry - you need to remove the glass, mount a new jumper, cut the glass to a new size and install it in place.
- To ensure that the solid block is stable, it does not vibrate, it is best to install it on a specially prepared mounting frame made from steel or aluminum bracket. The design of such a frame bracket can be different, it depends on the specific installation conditions - you just need to spread your brain a little. The main thing is that it has reliable support for stable elements of contraction( walls, ceiling, floor, upper edge of window opening and etc. .), Provided a stable position of the air conditioner, without longitudinal or lateral play.
- Similar hardware kits are often sold in home appliances stores. They can be manufactured independently on the size of a monoblock, by performing a welded construction or collapsible, on bolts.
- The operation of the air conditioner is always accompanied by a sufficiently sensitive vibration, therefore before installation it is necessary to provide damper gaskets( rubber or rubber-plastic ).
- It is necessary to close and seal the gaps between the body of the air conditioner and the frame elements( or wall).Fixing foam can not be used here - the will have to seal holes with other elastic materials, for example, with foam blocks( tapes).Narrow gaps can be filled with silicone sealant. Then openings , as a rule, are closed with extra cut-out pieces of expanded polystyrene, and on top - decorative panels.
- After installing the air conditioner in place, a drain pipe must be installed on the drain hole. The most commonly used corrugated plastic tube with a diameter of 16 mm, although some masters prefer to perform a more "capital" drain from the metal-plastic pipe. In any case, , drainage flow of should not have any kinks( loops) with air bubbles that prevent moisture outflow, should not touch or surface of liquid in storage tank .
- The last step is to connect the air conditioner to the mains. It is necessary to follow the recommendations for conducting a separate power line with its automatic machine, to maintain the required cross-section of wires, depending on the power of the device, according to , connecting the air conditioner housing to the ground loop( via a special three-pin plug and socket).
- After assurance of installation work, it is possible to perform a test run. In this case it is necessary to once again to check the quality of fastening, to tighten all fasteners as much as possible, in order not to allow increased vibration of the device - it is quite noisy in itself, and a poor-quality installation this shudder m m will strengthen it a lot.
Video: installation of window air conditioner - monoblock
Sequence of mounting of split system
Before proceed to consideration of this issue, it will be superfluous to make a number of important observations:
To the administration of the portal there were no complaints, it can be repeated that,according to its opinion, to carry out an independent installation of the split system , without having the experience of similar work, should not. The reasons have already been mentioned above.
Each air conditioner model has its own nuances of installation, which are detailed in the attached technical documentation. Consequently, the sequence of work and some features may not coincide.
Many operations for the installation of split systems should be performed by on the street, on the external surface of the building walls. If is - second floor and higher, then such actions already refer to high-altitude work requiring special preparation and special equipment or equipment( lifting technique, climbing rig and . )
Ignoring the safety rules carries a deadly threat both for the masters themselves and for people who may be down. It is strictly forbidden to do such work yourself!
So, all of the above should be taken only as a review article on the installation method split system , for example, to monitor the work of the brigade-induced masters. As the instruction to independent execution the text is not considered!
Video: tool nt for i work and the characteristic error with installation
- The primary marking of the meter is set for the indoor and outdoor units. The main task is to determine the specific places of their installation, so that they correspond to the basic rules for their placement( see diagram):
- units. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account the length of the track to be laid. So, " spin to back " it is possible to set the blocks, but the length of the route, for technological reasons, should not be less than 1500 mm. It is optimal to calculate so that the pipelines laid do not exceed 6 meters, otherwise an additional refueling of the system may be required. Immediately you can estimate how to "decorate" the route indoors - remove from the with subsequent embedding or hide it with a decorative plastic box.
The layout of the installation site and the determination of the length of the route will make it possible to determine the required number of materials - copper tubes, drain corrugations , cable, insulation insulation and adhesive tape.
- The space marking and the suspension of the indoor unit are produced. It is installed on a special mounting panel, which is fastened rigidly to the wall in advance.
When marking the holes for fixing the panel, it must be checked horizontally using the building level. This is not a "tribute to beauty", but an obligatory condition for unhindered flow of condensate into the drainage pipe, without its flowing beyond the pallet.
Once the mounting panel is secured, you can "practice" by attaching to the on the block - this will be required later, with the final assembly of the blocks with the already connected communications.
- Now, along the planned path of the future route, it is necessary to drill a hole in the outer wall of the house. This is not an easy task, especially if the knowledge is reinforced, with thick walls. A domestic perforator can and does not attempt to do this - you will need a powerful professional tool and a drill with a diameter of at least 45 ÷ 50 mm. In order not to run into the wall thickness on the valve, it is recommended to first choose the optimal location with the help of a special metal detector .
When drilling a hole, you should make a slight slope to the outside - so that it facilitates free flow of condensate from the indoor unit.
If you plan to hide the track in the wall, you can immediately cut out the from to the installation site of the indoor unit with the corresponding slat with a depth of up to 60 mm.
- It makes sense to go to the most difficult part of the installation - the installation of an external unit. For this purpose, special brackets are attached to the building wall( sometimes - to floor of balcony or flat roof surface) - they can be supplied complete with air conditioner , or are made in-house from a metal corner.
- wall Then, with all possible safety measures, an external unit is installed on the bracketed "platform" and fixed to them with special bolts.
- And now - the most important stage: the laying of freon track from block of to block .The is maintained by the in parallel with the installation of the drainage pipe and the pulling of the commutation cable.
- All sealed connections on both units are made using choke connectors with copper nuts and flared tubes. Special tools are required for installation - pipe cutter,
and flaring, consisting of special grips for different diameters of copper tubes, and a cone with an eccentric head.
How to flare - it's more convenient not to describe the words with the words, but to present it on the video:
Video: flaring of copper tubes
A frequent mistake for beginners is to forget to put flexion tube and a nut before the flaring.
When laying the route, a small of its reserve is taken into account - about 500 mm, which then will be easy to cut off at the final installation.
Depending on the relative location of blocks , the pipelines can be directly connected to the internal block , and then gently led out to the street, or first lay the route and then commute its on blocks .
- One end of both piping is connected to the indoor unit split system( it is impossible to make a mistake there, as two tubes and, correspondingly, nuts and nuts have different diameters).Immediately mount the drain corrugated hose and the connecting cable. All this, after the connection, is packed in one bag, with a dense winding of metallized or durable vinyl tape.
- After switching, the indoor unit is posted to the default location - on the preassembled panel. Further work is carried out outside the premises.
- Outside, with all safety measures, flaring and connection of both pipelines to the corresponding fittings( 1 and 2) are carried out. The connection with the spool( key 5) serves to refill the system with freon and to carry out the preliminary of its evacuation. Under the protective covers( items 3 and 4) are located valves that cover the outline of the external unit until the time.
- The flaring and connection of pipes is carried out in the same way as on the indoor unit. To avoid pulling the connections, it is best to use a torque wrench.
- After connecting the piping, immediately switch the electrical part. The wires of the extended cable are connected in accordance with the terminal markings on the indoor and outdoor unit.
- The drainage pipe is attached to the wall or is sideways in an easy to use position.
- Now - an important technological stage - vacuuming the system and cleaning it from the rest in the lag. It is carried out in two ways. The first - using a special vacuum pump, with the system pumping through the spool for 10 - 20 minutes. Then the valve is opened on both fittings( items 3 and 4) and the system is fully charged with freon - a small amount of gas can be etched. This method is considered the most reliable and professional.
Video: recommendations of the installation professionals of the air conditioner
In practice, many masters use the "bleeding" technique - by opening the valve( item 4) for 1 second filling the system with freon, and then pressing the slide valve( pos.5) ntThe is almost completely wound up. This manipulation is repeated 2 - 3 times( with the length of the route up to 6 meters), but you can not be too zealous, because then you may need refueling freon.
After that, the valves are opened, the system is fully charged with the refrigerant, and it is necessary to check the tightness of the connections. This can be done by smearing the joints with a dense soap bubble - the bubbles immediately prompt the presence of a leak. Hence, it will be necessary to tighten the connections so that the volatile refrigerant does not weaken their systems.
- Pipe and cable switching points are closed with standard enclosures - and the installation can be considered as completed ( if you do not take into account interior finishing activities).
- Now it is possible to connect the split system to the dedicated line for and execute the first drive to the on the air conditioner.
So, the summary of the publication. The installation of an air conditioner by one's own hands is an extremely responsible and rather complex exercise. Even compliance with all the rules and increased accuracy do not guarantee success from the first time - the lack of experience can be banal. Therefore , 's sincere recommendation to all beginners - do not spare the funds and still call a team of professional installers.