Thermal insulation materials: Comparative characteristics of popular options
Table of contents
- 1.1 fiberglass
- 1.2 stone wool
- 1.3 slag wool
- 2.1 Expanded polystyrene
- 2.2 Expanded polystyrene, extruded
- 3 Polyurethane foam
- 4 conclusion
Each insulated material has its own characteristics, knowing that, it is easier to make the right choice
Planning a house warming or an apartment? Then you need the insulation materials. Not to be mistaken with the choice and purchase the best option for your needs, I recommend to get acquainted with the main characteristics of the most popular to date the proposals that I have gathered in this article.
Mineral wool may be sold in roll form, and in the form of plates
Mineral wool - one of the most common heaters, which are used in construction. It is a collection of randomly arranged fibers durable, between which air pockets are formed.
mineral wool structure is composed of randomly distributed fibers and they form air pockets
In turn, depending on the type of feedstock that is used in the manufacturing process, mineral wool divided into three varieties:
Glass wool is produced from the same raw material as that of ordinary glass sand, limestone, borax and soda
- Good insulation qualities. The thermal conductivity of glass wool can take values in the range of 0.038 - 0.046 W / m × K;
- excellent sound insulation. Sound absorption coefficient reaches 0.92;
- High chemical stability;
- The lack of propensity to burn and even corruption. Fully compliant with fire safety regulations;
Glass wool can burn if you wish, but the source of the outbreak or spread of fire, it will never become
- The absence of shrinkage processes;
- High strength fibers. Are not destroyed even in the event of a prolonged vibration.
- brittle fibersHaving dangerous consequences for the human body. Weight of the finest and incredibly sharp splinters easily penetrates the clothing and cause severe skin itching, and splashed in the eyes and respiratory system capable of inflicting serious injury. All this greatly complicates the installation and reduces the scope of application of fiberglass;
It is strongly recommended to work with the heat insulating material in a dense protective clothing, masks, gloves and safety glasses. Only in this case will take the process painless for you.
Try as much as possible to protect yourself from glass fragments, that cloud spread around the roll during handling
- The relatively low thermal resistance. Though the source of the fire and will not wool, but itself begins to break down at a temperature of +450 ° C.
On building the shelves you can find the following suggestions:
|Photo||The name and price|
Isover Profi 100.
697 rubles per roll dimensions 5000h1220h100 mm.
Ursa GEO M-11.
1334 rubles for packaging rolls of two dimensions 10000h1200h50 mm
Knauf TR 037 Aquastatik.
1306 rubles per roll dimensions 5500h1220h150 mm.
Stone wool made of rock
Insulate materials based on mineral rightfully headed rock wool, to create from diabase. It costs a little more expensive, but much greater than other forms of mineral wool on the technical characteristics.
- Excellent thermal insulation qualities. The thermal conductivity of the insulation varies 0,035-0,045 W / m × K;
If you choose the heater for the bath or sauna, then I recommend staying on stone wool with a foiled surface. The foil will reflect the infrared radiation from the furnace, which will further reduce the potential heat loss in the steam room.
Stone wool with foil not only prevents heat transfer, but also returns the heat rays back into space
- Excellent sound insulation properties. sound absorption coefficient of 0.95;
- high thermal stability. It is a material which does not burn or melt to a temperature of +700 ° C;
- Durability and resistance to deformation processes;
- lack of hygroscopicity. Moisture absorption is only 0.095% per day, so that the use of rock wool is possible even in wet conditions;
- chemical inertness;
- Environmentally friendly. It can be mounted in areas where allergy sufferers and children live;
- Simple instruction manual, Does not require any special skills.
Installation of stone wool with your hands is much safer than similar manipulations with glass wool or slag wool, as its fibers are not splitting
The disadvantage is only the relatively high cost, due to the complexity of manufacture.
On building the shelves you can find the following suggestions:
|Picture||The name and value of|
Light Batts Rockwool.
635 rubles for pack sizes 1000h600h50 mm.
345 rubles for pack sizes 1000h600h100 mm.
Paroc Linio 15.
1148 rubles per pack sizes 1200s 600h50 mm.
Slag is made of steel slag waste blast
Raw materials for slag wool - waste domain industry. Due to this it costs significantly less than other forms of mineral wool. However, on the merits of this heater end and disadvantages begin:
- low thermal resistance. Melting begins on heating to 300 degrees Celsius;
- Weak thermal insulation properties. Thermal conductivity coefficient reaches as much 0,46-0,48 W / m × K;
- Short service life. Begins to break down and lose their quality after 10-15 years of use;
- highly hygroscopic. Moisture absorption reaches 1.9% per day;
I do not recommend using slag wool in rooms with high humidity. She quickly absorb the moisture, and the presence of water between the fibers at once will increase the thermal conductivity of the material, making it useless.
- brittle fibers. As well as the wool, the heater delivers a lot of inconvenience during installation, spreading around the cloud of caustic and hazardous to the human body fragments.
Thermal insulation materials from waste blast metallurgy gradually recede into the past, losing its higher quality competitors. Do not save even a low cost.
Modern insulation materials is difficult to imagine without the foams. Here we should pay special attention to the following two varieties:
Polystyrene plates - Cluster fastened between a small polymer beads
Styrofoam - is foamed and solidified polymer mass, which is due to the large the amount of air in the structure and integrity of cells characterized by high thermal insulation properties.
- Low weight. This material is not permeable heat has no additional load on the structural elements to insulate buildings, as most of it consists of air;
Foam plate light enough that it can operate with one person
- Excellent thermal insulation qualities. Depending on the grade of polystyrene its thermal conductivity can vary from 0.37 to 0.43 W / m × K;
- Low price. It is much cheaper than even slag wool, made of industrial waste;
- Ease of installation work. Polystyrene plates stationery easily cut with a knife or a saw, weigh little, which also facilitates the installation and are fixed to the adhesive or assembly foam. You do not need special skills or expensive equipment to perform all these operations;
During the installation of the foam slabs necessarily wear personal protective equipment
- Relatively high strength characteristics. The tensile strength was 80 kPa and a compressive - 130 kPa.
But there are drawbacks:
- low vapor permeability;
The room is insulated with foam, often recommend to ventilate or, better yet, provide effective ventilation system. This will avoid the formation of condensate and propagation under damp heat insulating layer.
- Vulnerability to sunlight. By constantly received doses of ultraviolet and yellow polystyrene breaks;
- combustibility. Contemplated light insulating material in contact with an open flame;
Foam refers to combustible materials, which adversely affects the fire to warm with the help of home
- hydrophoby. If the structure of the polystyrene penetrate the moisture, it will collapse with time;
- fragility. When careless operation of the foam plate are easily broken and form a large number of chips.
Expanded polystyrene, extruded
Extruded polystyrene is superior in its technical indicators are generally foam
In this case, in fact, talking about the improved foam, which, though it cost a bit more expensive, but in the operation demonstrates the much higher rates.
- whole microstructure, Excluding the possibility of the penetration of moisture. Thus, on the hydrophobicity of speech no longer goes;
- High insulation properties. Thermal conductivity of extruded polystyrene is only 0,028-0,035 W / m × K;
- chemical inertness to the majority of active substances;
- Good strength characteristicsExceeding the analogous parameters of the conventional foam;
- serviceability. For light weight and ease of processing, you can add a little brittle.
Due to the absence of hydrophobicity and enhanced strength extruded polystyrene insulation is best suited for the floor than normal
But, unfortunately, it was not possible to overcome the disadvantages were:
- low vapor permeabilityNot exceeding 0,001 mg / m × h × Pa;
Polyurethane foam is initially liquid state, and solidifies on contact with air
Polymer types of thermal insulation materials is not limited to only foams to them also applies to polyurethane foam.
- Excellent thermal insulation properties. Thermal conductivity coefficient fluctuates around 0,019-0,028 W / m × K than can boast of any other building materials;
- excellent elasticityAllowing to easily withstand the possible shrinkage of the building process;
- Ability to uneven insulation surfaces. Polyurethane foam is applied in a liquid state, allowing it to fill a gap and, and protruding elements close;
The presence of cracks on the surface to be treated or, on the contrary, bulges, it is absolutely unimportant for polyurethane foam due to its liquid state
- High speed installation work;
- Fully sealed. Joints are absent.
The thermal insulation layer of polyurethane foam has no seams, which increase the heat losses
- Isolation of toxins in the combustion process;
- low vapor permeabilityCommon to all polymers;
- The need for a special expensive equipment.
For quick and easy applying foam, you will need special installation
Purchase equipment for applying foam is recommended only if you plan to do it professionally. For a one-time use to do the same irrational.
You know what insulation materials for today are most in demand. Videos in this article provides additional information and comments, you can ask any question you have on the subject.
Careful attention to the choice of thermal insulation materials for your home will give you for many years to heat in the winter nights and cool in summer days