Fire escapes are different. Types of fire stairs: a vertical ladder, a marching outer ladder, a march single-span ladder, a march multi-span ladder. More information about the requirements for stairs is described below.
- Description fire ladders outer
- Requirements outer fire ladders
- Value fire ladders outer GOST P 53254-2009
- outer stationary fire ladders
- drawing fire ladders outer
- What are the requirements to fireOutside staircase( video)
- Examples outdoor fire ladder( photo)
Description fire outer staircase
Vertical fire escape - letnitsa consists of two beams, which are firmly fixed stage. If the height of the stairs reaches 6 m, then further rise is protected. The maximum height of such a ladder is 20 m.
If the height exceeds the norm, the use of such structures becomes extremely dangerous.
The vertical fire ladder is used for lifting to the roof with preventive and technical work. In addition, it is used by specialists in emergency situations, for example, in case of fire. To use this ladder, it must meet the requirements of GOST 53254-2009 and NPB 245-2001.In addition to all of the above, such ladders can be an attached structure, but then they must be provided with additional security elements.
marching addl fire escape - ins such ladders is that they are made without the help of welding and metal cutting, but, nevertheless, they comply with the requirements of GOST and SNIP.
These stairs serve for the black entrance to the building.
marching single-span fire ladder - a ladder of this type are used for the entrance to the technical part of the building, or used for evacuation( evacuation).The design is attached to the wall or it stands on special poles. Just like the marching ladder, it is made without welding and cutting metal.
marching fire ladder, multi - pattern of ladders used to climb to the upper floors, as well as for evacuation in emergency situations. This type of staircase is the safest. They are somewhat more complicated than vertical ones. These ladders consist of marches and platforms. Each span and platform is protected by special handrails, the height of which must reach at least 120 cm. The installation of such stairs is not easy.
There are also conditionally-external staircases - most often, they are installed in facades and special outhouses.
Whatever the building, it must necessarily be thought out the ways of evacuation, which means that there are fire stairs. A person must have at least 2 ways out of a potentially dangerous zone. Stairs can be subdivided according to the type of the roof of the steps: corrugated( latticed) steel, expanded metal, as well as steel, consisting of stamped elements.
The material from which the structures are made is treated with a special solution. This is done so that the staircase does not come out of service ahead of time, regardless of weather conditions and environmental impact.
Requirements for external fire ladders
In most cases, the safety of the structure depends on the installation, as well as on the subsequent maintenance of the external ladder. The usual placement of fire stairs - near the walls. It is thanks to this position that the probability that smoke or fire will fall on the stairs is minimal, and people can safely be evacuated from the building without receiving additional injuries.
Requirements to be met by an external fire escape:
- The ladder should not have sharp corners, protrusions that will interfere with the safe evacuation of citizens;
- No external damage, cracks, rust;
- Fasteners are rigorously checked, because the reliability of the structure depends on them;
- The step width must be at least 300 mm, the length of the step is at least 900 mm, and the height of the fence - 1200 mm( NPB 245-2001);
- The steps of the ladder should easily withstand up to 180 kg, while satisfying the airbags 295-97;
- For vertical structures, the length between the steps should not be more than 30 cm and the distance from the last step to the ground should not exceed 1.5 m.
The inspection can be carried out by a specialized group that has access to such types of work. Techniques and tools, through which verification will occur, must comply with GOST standards.
Visual inspection assesses the appearance of the structure, the absence of corrosion and damage.
Further power tests are carried out. They pass like this: a cargo weighing 180 kg is suspended for a certain time to the last stage. Thus, every fifth step is checked. If the design fails to pass the appropriate testing, an inspection report with recommendations is drawn up, which is subsequently transferred to the owner of the house. For the subsequent inspection, the damaged parts are repaired, defects are eliminated.
Compliance of the fire escape staircase GOST R 53254-2009
This document establishes the norms that all types of fire ladders must meet( march, vertical).The norms contained in the document must be taken into account at the design design stage. The document contains rules and requirements for checking the condition of external fire ladders, materials, meeting technical requirements for manufacturing, as well as methods for testing the power characteristics of stairs, and criteria for assessing the condition of the structure.
The following components are tested according to GOST 523254-2009:
- Dimensions and strength of composite components;
- Quality of welding, fastening;Exterior view of the external fire escape;
- Compliance with the drawing;
- Distances between structural elements.
Constructions are subject to mandatory inspection during acceptance, upon request of the organization responsible for the condition of the structure, if necessary.
When checking, specialists also check the design and drawing of the external ladder. Tests are conducted at least twice a year( p. 220.127.116.11 PPB-01-93).
Stationary fire extinguishing ladders
At the moment, there is a very active activity on the construction of new houses. One of the most important parts of the building is a stationary fire escape. Such ladders are necessary to ensure the safety of people in case of fire, evacuation, rescue operations or other emergencies.
In many-storey high-rise buildings, the most reliable way to leave the building will be the stationary fire escape. Such a fire-prevention design is installed outside any high-rise building. The materials from which the construction is made, present certain requirements.
One of the most important indicators is fire resistance, and that is why stationary staircases are made mainly of certain materials.
- Steel corrugated steel leaves;
- Metal bars;
- Expanded-drawn steel steel leaves;
- Press-grating steel leaves of steel.
The steps must be manufactured in such a way that they are not slippery afterwards. To do this, most often, use grating steel. It will prevent the formation of dirt and the accumulation of snow.
On the railing of a stationary ladder it is strictly forbidden to broadcast decor elements, which in the event of a fire easily ignite and emit toxic substances. It is also forbidden to place pipes and cables. The only exception is electrical wiring.
Drawing of a fire extinguishing ladder
The design of a fire escape starts from the drawing.
Components of the marches in the flight fire ladder:
- Supporting plate;
- Reference angle.
Components of the vertical ladder:
What are the requirements for fire external staircases( video)
When building external fire stairs, specialists take into account certain dimensions, technical characteristics. Choose a material that will exactly meet the requirements of GOST.With the help of the drawing, they can also calculate the exact width and length of the future structure, as well as the characteristics of its constituent parts( marches, handrails, spans, platforms, steps).
It is possible to develop a safe ladder, if all requirements of SNiP and GOST are strictly observed. Examples