The staircase is classified as an architectural structure that meets the specific requirements of strength, operational reliability and safety standards. Also, the staircase should fit into the interior of the house. For a ladder design, it is best to choose high-quality materials that provide longevity to the product. Builders with a long record of work argue that the most reliable and durable material for stairs is concrete. The concrete staircase has improved strength characteristics and properties.
- Advantages of concrete stairs for a house or cottage
- Types of reinforced concrete staircases and requirements of GOST
- Basic elements of a concrete ladder and reinforcement
- Necessary calculation of a concrete ladder according to
- We put a formwork for a concrete staircaseIn-house
- We make steps for concrete stairs
- Self-repair of concrete steps of stairs and types of damage
- Varieties of concrete stairs( video)
- Examples of concrete staircases( photo)
Advantages of staircases from concrete for a house or cottage
Reinforced concrete structures are distinguished by their high strength and can be easily shaped by any type of production. Staircase structures made of concrete excellently bear all the hardships of exploitation. Such structures can be installed in the inside of living quarters and on the street, even near water bodies with the coast. Also, concrete ladders are considered to be the most ideal option when a central input group is built. And good for providing movement to the basement or to the attic floor. It is also possible to use for landscape design.
The main advantages of concrete staircases:
- No concrete ladder unit is loosened by loads due to monolithic construction;
- Concrete steps relieve owners of unpleasant sounds in the form of a violin;
- Concrete staircase can be made in any style and form, from simple marching to complex configurations;
- Simple and fast production;
- Fire-fighting properties;
- Concrete staircases make it possible to use different facing materials to create a unique look and design.
Concrete staircases can be monolithic or solid. Also options are possible, where on the kosoura mounts are installed with the rung steps.
The design of a concrete ladder can be developed by yourself or you can contact a specialist for assistance. Modern designers have ready-made universal designs that will fit into any living space.
Types of reinforced concrete ladders and the requirements of GOST
All ladders are divided into types and types. Reinforced concrete ladders differ in type and construction of marches. A ladder march is the steps fixed on the bearing beams. Between the marches are sites that perform the function of joining marches and icing them into a ladder structure.
Platforms are elements cast or liquid on the frame structure, which are made separately from the marches or can be one with them, usually made for stairs with a turn.
Staircase reinforced concrete marches are divided into 2 types:
- The monolithic type is used in typical buildings and is a holisticblock.
- Prefabricated structures are used to create stairs, the size of which is far from the standard( example - 1300h350h50).Such designs are divided into one-marsh, two-marsh and multi-marshal types. They can also be straight, circular and pivotal.
In general, staircases can differ in decorative finish, which has a function of protection and aesthetic appearance. Also, concrete staircases must meet certain technical requirements, which should be taken into account in production.
First of all, these are the safety standards and the holding of large loads, in accordance with the standards of GOST:
- The number of steps can be in the range of 3-18 pcs.;
- The width of the march must be at least 900 mm;
- The height of the steps can be from 150-160 mm;
- Staircases can be as long as 2000 mm.
- The angle of inclination of reinforced concrete staircases should be 25-40 degrees.
Manufacturers who manufacture staircases, in the first place, take care of convenience and safety, for this reason compliance with established standards is a prerequisite.
Basic elements of the concrete ladder and reinforcement
Any ladder has the basic elements, of which, in fact, the whole structure consists.
Internal march concrete stairs include the following elements:
- Reinforced concrete marches;
- Safety guards
- Intermediate platforms;
- Floor area;
- Treads for decorative finishing.
All the concrete elements for the staircase are in the process of reinforcement.
Reinforcement is carried out using:
- Rod-type hot-rolled steel;
- Special wire;
- Wire reinforced thermomechanically.
Each constituent element is a very important part that performs its function. The platforms unite the structure together and provide a safe and convenient movement. The length of the sites is double the average step of an adult person. In centimeters, this parameter corresponds to approximately 62 cm. The width is equal to the width of the march. Protective guards must be installed reliably and conveniently for movement. The fences can be made of any finishing material that meets the established standards.
The height of the protective guard should not be less than 90 cm. The material for fencing is best chosen according to the strength criteria.
Necessary calculation of the concrete staircase according to the parameters of
In order for the staircase to be comfortable and comply with all safety standards, the whole volume of settlement operations should be carefully made before manufacturing it. Today, program developers offer an online calculator that, when entering parameters, can make the necessary calculations. Experience and practice of builders shows that it is best to make calculations based on already proven methodology.
In order to correctly calculate the parameters of the ladder, you need to know some parameters:
- Height of span;
- Basic configuration of the structure;
- The width of the opening.
The calculation formula consists of the following data:
- Number of steps;
- Tilt angle of the march;
- Width of the march;
- Depth of tread;
- Height of the riser.
When calculating it is worth remembering that the most safe and comfortable are the stairs with a gap of 300 mm. To calculate the number of stages, it is necessary to divide the height difference between the floors by the height indicators of the riser.
To determine the desired angle, use the rectangular rectangle model. The triangle's triangles are conventionally considered as tread and step. Next, you must divide the height of the step by its width, and determine the data by the table of values of the tangents of the angle. The calculation must be made in accordance with the requirements, otherwise the ladder design will turn out to be uncomfortable, and it can quickly fail.
We put the formwork for the staircase of concrete on our own
The formwork is a definite form for pouring concrete slurry to make the steps. For a concrete stairway, choose a timbering, the frame of which is made of wood. Wood, the material is light and durable, which makes it easy to create the formwork. If the form of the staircase is unusual, then the formwork is best cut from durable materials, such as plywood. Self-tapping screws are used for fixing in advance to facilitate dismantling work.
To strengthen the formwork, we use bars or a metal amplifier in the form of an angle.
formwork installation. Steel reinforcement armature is installed together with the mold. The porch can be made by yourself, thanks to the simplicity of the design. The formwork is mounted strictly according to the designed plan. The plan is built from pre-prepared calculations, and by correctly removing the required dimensions. Experts in the help offer step-by-step instructions that will help a beginner builder.
Instruction on the formwork:
- First of all, on the plywood, you need to pencil the borders of the side walls of the porch.
- Under the drawing, cut out the wall parts.
- The walls are connected with each other by cross bars.
- Under the porch should dig a small hole in which to pour gravel or sand, and compact with a roofing material.
- The next stage is the installation of the box, which must be fixed on vertical supports.
- A metal reinforcing mesh is laid inside the paneling structure.
When formwork is securely installed and secured, it is possible to start pouring concrete.
Making steps for concrete stairs
For the manufacture of concrete steps, we will need a solution and certain knowledge and skills. The manufacturing scheme is quite simple. After the installation of the wooden formwork, concrete work is carried out for the manufacture of steps.
To this end, prepare:
- Cement, the grade of which corresponds to the standards;
- Sand is coarse-grained;
- Small size crushed stone;
- A rod made of iron reinforcement.
In order to create steps, it must be remembered that the formwork must be integral, without cracks and gaps, and can be non-removable.
The fill should be done carefully so that the formwork structure does not collapse under pressure.
Begin the creation of future stages from the bottom step. When concrete works should not forget about the leveling of the solution, and you need to give him time to dry. When the concrete solidifies, you can start dismantling the formwork. Dismantling is carried out with a hammer or a screwdriver, depending on the fixing material.
This is followed by the finishing process. Concrete steps can be finished with different materials, it all depends on the location of the stairs and the preferences of the owners. Many designers trim the steps with tiles, use beautiful carpet paths or special overhead wooden steps.
Self-repair of concrete steps of stairs and types of damage
Repair for a concrete ladder is required in rare cases. More often, it is necessary to repair very old steps, where corners and edges are damaged first of all. The restoration of the steps is carried out in several stages, depending on the damage.
Basic damage to concrete steps:
is able to cope with a simple repair of the concrete staircase
After the steps are thoroughly examined, in which the damage and their causes are identified, the type of repair work is determined.
Works are as follows:
- Restoring corners;
- Elimination of cracks and chips;
- Facing works.
Quite often, in order to reinstall concrete steps or a ladder platform, marble chips are chosen. This is a new generation material that allows you to restore staircase structures. This material has the form of a plate, the cross section of which is 3 mm.
The cantilever plate has various properties that increase the wear resistance and durability of concrete steps. Work with this material is reminiscent of facing works.
Coatings with marble chips give the steps a beautiful appearance. Before the restoration work, you should prepare the steps. Prepare will help grinding.
Types of concrete ladders( video)
Any construction work requires a certain knowledge, for this reason, do not ignore the advice of specialists. For the manufacture or repair of a concrete ladder, all preparatory work should be done - prepare the base, calculate the correct weight, proportions, and also calculate what parameters the future product will have. The estimate is also a very important part of the work. It is not necessary to save on the quality of materials when preparing it. The estimate is necessary in order to determine how much solution and additional materials are needed. For easy creation of a ladder design, it is necessary to adhere to the basic norms and parameters, which are prescribed by GOST.