Building Materials

Ceramic facing tiles or how to choose it competently?

Types of ceramic tiles

Ceramic tiles can be of completely different types. It differs by the way of forming, coating, basis, color, size, etc. We describe in detail each of them.

  • Glazed( enameled) or not .In other words, ceramic tiles are glossy and matt. If we talk about the first type, then its surface is covered with a layer of colored glass. That is why there is such a characteristic reflection. Ceramic tile matt glossy coating does not have and differs slightly rough surface.
  • Extruded or extruded ( by molding method).The former are made from a dough mixture and molded by passing through an extruder( special hole).The second ones are made in the form of a powdery composition and are molded under a press under high pressure.
  • Thick or porous base ( base tiles).The porosity index is determined by the degree of absorption of water vapor. The larger it is, the greater the degree of absorbency and the higher the porosity of the substrate. Usually it is indicated on the pac
  • Shape and size. The most popular form is a square and a rectangle. In some cases( with original designs) an octagon, hexahedron, Moorish and Provencal shape is used. The size can also be different: 15x15, 33x33, 25x35, 45x45 and others.
  • Color and the presence of decor. The color of the ceramic tile directly depends on the amount of pigments added to its composition. It is worth knowing that in addition to any drawings, there may be natural shades that imitate stone, wood, skin and other textures.

Types of tiles according to the method of manufacturing

Depending on the method of production, the tiles can also be subdivided into types: single or double firing, clinker, granite, cotto. Single firing( or monocoature) means the production of tiles by pressing and drying clay composition, applying glaze and firing. The double firing tile( or bicotter) is produced in the same way, with only two firing: before and after glazing.

Ceramic granite tile is created from a mixture of quartz, two kinds of clays, coloring pigments, feldspar. This composition is first compressed under pressure, then dried and finally fired at the final stage. The size of the finished tiles at the same time can be: 120x180, 60x60, 30x30, 60x120 cm. Cotto is manufactured using the oldest technology of red clay. It is created by extrusion( passing through the mold) and roasting. Often in this case, ceramic relief tiles are produced.

In its color, the cotto has yellow, pink, brown hues. Clinker tile ( or clinker) is glazed and unglazed. It is also made by extrusion and firing at maximum temperatures. It is thanks to such temperatures that the stove produces a durable and durable material. In some cases, the production process uses a pressing technique( under high pressure).

Selecting ceramic tiles

In order to understand which ceramic tiles are best suited for your premises, it is important to determine under what conditions it will be used. If it is supposed to finish the external surfaces( including facades), it is important to buy a material with high frost resistance. Usually on the package there are the corresponding designations - A I or B I.

In case if it is necessary to carry out internal work, then it is worth paying attention to the signs - A III or B III.Plus, remember that there are significant differences between floor and wall tiles, primarily in terms of abrasion. So, when buying material for flooring, look at the symbols - from PEI-I to PEI-V.The latter is the most stable, the first less resistant to abrasion.

After this you need to pay attention to the size and shape of the tiles. It should be perfectly flat and have the right angles. Place the tiles on top of each other and compare the geometry( in particular, this is important if you have hand-made ceramic tiles in front of you).Also, the slipperiness of the tiles will be checked. For this, you can drop a little water on the surface and draw a finger. This is important in order that afterwards you can safely walk on the floor, without falling and stumbling.