Waterproofing pool: how to protect the vessel from leaks in 3 steps
Table of contents
1 Features of the waterproofing process
- 1.1 What do I need to consider?
- 1.2 Materials used
- 2.1 What is needed for the construction of the cup?
- 2.2 Step 1. preliminary work
- 2.3 Step 2. Exterior waterproofing
- 2.4 Step 3. trim
- 3 conclusion
So that the water does not exceed the limits of hydro reservoir need to be finished with special materials and humidity-resistant formulations
Waterproofing of the pool with their hands - it's a whole range of activities to be performed during the construction of such a facility. Of course, today's market you can find almost any material with the desired moisture resistance, but to achieve results have to understand the technology details.
Below I will discuss some waterproofing methods exist, what materials are necessary to get to solve this objectives, as well as bring the proven pool construction algorithm that will be protected from flow.
Features of the waterproofing process
What do I need to consider?
Waterproofing the pool - this is a mandatory stage of the work, without which the pool is not actually a swimming pool, and simply concreted pit in the ground. Conformal coatings, which are usually made multilayered, can solve a number of problems:
Typical floor diagram of the device with the tiled lining
- water retention inside. Pool - a tank with high (or very large) volume of water, so that the pressure on the inside wall of the structure will be very substantial. Consequently, the water pressure will be looking for the slightest output slot outward. And if used for waterproofing the pool is not enough reliable - the water will find this slot!
- Protection of the concrete base. Quality concrete that is used for hydraulic structures, should be well endure prolonged contact with moisture. Yet waterproofing materials act as a barrier that significantly increases the service life of concrete and leveling layer.
Concrete base requires protection - otherwise sooner or later, the bowl will begin to crumble
I would like to draw your attention that even the most effective waterproofing pools will not help if the walls are made of concrete with a violation of the technology. The same applies to nizkomarochnogo concrete: sooner or later, the tank will start to break down.
- finish protection. If the interior design of the bowl you plan to use ceramic tiles, should take care that the base for sticking protected against water. Yes, tiles she has an almost absolute resistance to moisture, but if you do not seal the pool wall, the adhesion to the adhesive composition will be broken. As a result of lining starts to fall off.
If there is a gap, then the water will penetrate to the ground, and finishes will fall away
- The outer protection. External waterproofing is required primarily those parts of the structure that are located below ground level. On the one hand, it will protect concrete from groundwater infiltration with dissolved layers. On the other - will act as additional protection against leakage, preventing the wetting of the soil along the perimeter.
Outside the tank, too, need to be protected from contact with groundwater
In general, the pool waterproofing - this is clearly not the stage, which can be neglected. From the quality of this work depends directly on how reliable and durable get a bowl of water. And to ensure this quality, we need to use suitable materials.
Processing tank to prevent leakage / infiltration and protecting concrete from the effects of moisture can be performed using different formulations. The range of funds now very wide - there are plenty to choose.
Penetrating compositions are typically applied by spray - or less consumption and effective protection
Keep in mind that some materials can be used as a decorative finish. Others let you seal the concrete, but at the same time require lining.
The main groups of materials:
- Penetrating agent for concrete. Means ( "Penetron" and its analogues) is applied to the concrete surface and, penetrating the microcracks clog them. By and large, the penetrating waterproofing used as a preventive and supportive. It is quite effective, but to protect the concrete foundation is desirable nevertheless enhance its effect another waterproof material from another.
A diagram illustrating the efficiency of penetrating compositions for concrete
In penetrating compounds have one drawback - they are mostly liquid. As a result of such approach means not all work - for example, sealing joints and cracks will be very difficult. Exceptions ( "Penekrit" and analogues) there, but finding them is difficult, and they cost a lot.
- polymer-coating. The basis material is cement with the addition of sand, for protection against moisture correspond polymeric additives. Finishing concrete bowl is conducted in the same way as ordinary cement plaster - on the grid, using a spatula, and graters. A key disadvantage - low elasticity: no protection layer material may crack when temperature changes.
Concrete surface for finishing may be impregnated with liquid glass - it increases the resistance of cement at times
- Silicate materials. Liquid waterproofing basin glass is used in two ways. In the first case, the sodium and potassium silicates were added in the cement used for aligning the inside walls of the tank. The second - the composition in liquid form is applied on the concrete surface, penetrating into the pores and preventing infiltration of moisture.
- Mastic. And applied to the outer, inner and finishing, after the partial polymerization of forming a hermetic coating impermeable crowbars. The outside to protect the pool is usually applied simple and cheap enough mastic asphalt. For internal processing using more expensive compounds - PeneSplitSeal and PenePurFoam (injecting resin), Polybit Polyflex, Idrosilex Prontoi etc...
Mastics Bitumen is used mainly for roughing
Lack mastics for internal processing - the complexity of the subsequent tile cladding bowl basin. That is, theoretically, it can be made, but in practice, the main difficulty lies in the precarious cohesion of polymerized with mastic adhesive.
For large-scale works of liquid rubber is applied in mechanized way
- Liquid rubber pool. Is not used as often as attaching the trim with a sufficient margin of safety is almost impossible. On the other hand, the liquid rubber waterproofing ensures complete impermeability, and the material has admirable resistance not only to water but also to most of the components used for cleaning and disinfection pools. Applied either manually (paint compositions), or cold spraying (two component polymerizable emulsion).
With self paint pigments based liquid rubber applied brushes and rollers
The use of polymeric films for cup lining - variant complex but effektviny
- Films and membranes. Introduced to the market in a wide range, they differ not only in the thickness, but also on the structure (and hence on performance indicators). The film usually just fit into the cup on the adhesive layer, the membrane is formed from a waterproof and impregnate the reinforcing fabric. Advantages materials - elasticity: the resilience they can crack bridging up to 3 mm, while maintaining water resistance.
When using PVC-membrane or film is very important to ensure the tightness of the joints - for example, by welding as in this photo
A significant drawback of membranes - the high price. Solid coatings are from 800 rubles per square meter (at a thickness of 1.5 mm), materials with a pattern or markings - from 1200-1600 rub / m 2 or more..
Most of these materials are applied at a professional manufacturing of pools. The reason is that the required quality of the coating can be achieved only when the mechanized application using special equipment.
If you plan to carry out all the work on their own, the best would be a combination of these materials:
- waterproof concrete admixtures;
- penetrating impregnation of the concrete base;
- outer surface waterproofing using bitumastic;
- inner finishing paint based liquid rubber.
- or moisture resistant inner lining with impregnating solution and subsequent cladding tile.
Typical Basin finishing scheme for self-construction
Naturally, other circuits integrated waterproofing, too, have a right to exist.
What is needed for the construction of the cup?
How to make waterproofing the pool on their own? To ensure good protection against water, moisture-proof measures should be planned at the stage of construction, so that a start I'll be right by this option.
First you need to buy all of the materials.
An indicative list of what is needed for the formation of a waterproof bowl:
|Concrete with good resistance to water to form the pool walls.|
Bedding materials for the bottom:
|Thick plastic film.|
|Penetrating Primer waterproofing components.|
|Bituminous mastic for exterior waterproofing.|
|Moisture resistant leveling mortar based on cement.|
|Liquid rubber for waterproofing of the pool.|
|Tile flooring and skirting.|
|Adhesive for tiles with enhanced moisture resistance.|
|Grout for tiles (Better to take a specialized - for swimming pools).|
I stress that this set of materials suitable for the performance of works on a very simple scheme. If finances permit, it is better to buy a special waterproofing complex, which includes all of the components from a single source. Typically, in such complexes include and penetrating compounds and compositions, and special sealing tape to protect the joints of the walls of the leak.
Step 1. preliminary work
When preparing the design of handling moisture protection materials, the focus should be given concrete state
Instructions for the effective implementation of the pool waterproofing suggests that the bowl will be initially endowed with the necessary supply of moisture resistance. This ensures compliance with the construction technology:
Bedding bottom of the excavation.
The first circuit performs a moisture base of sand and gravel bedding.
After aligning the bottom of the excavation fall asleep its sand-gravel mixture layer of about 20 cm. The mixture is thoroughly moisturizes and ramming.
Then laid on the base of the reinforcing bars and beacons, which we will use as a guide when pouring the floor.
Exterior waterproofing formwork.
Formwork for the pool walls do from thick plywood or boards. Outside wrap structure thick polyethylene film which will prevent leakage of concrete during pouring and facilitate further processing outside.
Betonirovka bottom of the pool.
Bottom concreting, using high-quality solution (not lower than B15 / M350 strength and watertightness below W4). The optimum thickness of the layer at the bottom - of 30 cm or more.
Also pay attention to frost solution: for the construction of the room choose the concrete is not lower than the F150 (150 cycles of freezing / razmerzanie) for open-not below F200.
Pouring concrete formwork.
After the initial polymerization at the bottom of the concrete fills the formwork. In order to have sufficient wall moisture resistance, their thickness should be not less than 20 cm.
preparing a solution for pouring cement based not lower M400 supplemented with sifted sand 1.5-2 mm hard-rock and the gravel fraction 10-20 mm.
A solution is required to thicken, or by using vibrators or shtykovaniem.
Drying of the concrete pool.
formwork dismantling perform for 10-14 days after laying.
After dismantling perform rough alignment surfaces, erasing all defects. Then continue drying, trying to avoid drying out of the concrete.
If the average temperature exceeds 20 ° C, the surface requires additional moisture. When the dust on the concrete, it is desirable to moisten it and cover with polyethylene, otherwise there is a risk of cracking.
For complete curing concrete solution without additives requires about 28 days.
Alignment of the grid walls.
The internal surface of the pool align moisture-resistant cement composition. To ensure maximum adhesion use alkali resistant fiberglass mesh.
Before equalization basin walls may be further protected from moisture penetrating through the composition.
Sealing of joints of the walls and floor.
Place abutment walls to the floor more often suffer from leakage. To prevent the flow angle sizing strip plaster mesh and thoroughly embedded solution.
If possible, use a special germetizatsionnuyu tape, which are glued onto the concrete layer under leveling mortar.
Step 2. Exterior waterproofing
External waterproofing pool is carried out mainly when the wall (or part thereof) are below ground level. We have to solve the following tasks:
- concrete protection from moisture;
- Protection against infiltration tank;
- provision of drainage around the perimeter;
- insulation cup.
exterior finishing technology is simple, but time-consuming:
Concrete pool wall formwork cleaned from residues and temporary thermal insulation.
Discovered pores, voids and cracks are sealed with cement mortar and carefully rub clean.
Put on an outer wall surface of penetrating two layers of waterproofing material.
Apply by brush or roller bitumen mastic on all underground parts of the walls. Processing is performed in two layers, the thickness of each layer should be approximately 1.5 mm.
Thoroughly dry paste, and then inspect the surface. When detecting passes restore the integrity of the coating.
Warming and drainage.
Above waterproofed wall panel set of thermally insulating plastics material (polystyrene). They are not only slow the cooling water in the tank, but also act as an additional barrier to moisture.
The trench around the perimeter fall asleep at least 30 cm of coarse gravel for drainage. Here you can also lay drainage pipes and other communications.
Step 3. trim
The internal design of the tank - the most important stage of the work. Accordingly, it must comply with all the rules.
As an example, I use a version with an integrated waterproofing (Wall - liquid rubber, floor - tiles with grout)
Facing the floor.
Using a water-resistant adhesive for tiles, floor tiles stoning.
For the convenience of the work separately to seal tile protective film, leaving free the tile seams.
penetrating compositions Processing.
Walls impregnate the penetrating waterproofing.
The composition is applied in two layers (minimum), with a pause between each polymerizable components.
Waterproofing of tile joints.
The seams between the tiles carefully rub clean using a special formulations with high moisture resistance.
You can apply ka cement and epoxy grout.
Application of the liquid rubber.
Once the grout is dry enough to across the tile could walk, we proceed to the application of the main waterproofing.
Paint composition based on liquid rubber thoroughly mixed and applied to the walls of at least three layers. For application using a roller or brush.
Each layer must be dried thoroughly to form a waterproof film.
Additional angles waterproofing.
After completion of staining the walls further handle interface. To do this, you can use a more dense structure - so moisture protection will be even more effective.
The main advantage of the above scheme - easy to implement. To use the mentioned compounds do not need any special skills or complicated equipment. So to build a swimming pool can any master - enough skill and accuracy.
Waterproofing basin may be formed in several ways - all depending on the requirements for the surface being treated and on the choice of material moisture. In implementing the above tips will help you in this video article. In addition, in a difficult situation, you can always consult with experts and other users, ask a question in the comments.