Wooden stairs to the second floor: the entire process from the calculation to finish
Table of contents
- 1 varieties of stairs
- 2 Calculation of key parameters
3 Materials and tools
- 3.1 Blanks for ladders and supplies
- 3.2 Set of tools
4 How is the ladder
- 4.1 Production of the supporting frame
- 4.2 finishing
- 5 conclusion
Make odnomarshevuyu ladder itself - is quite real!
Stairs to the second floor in a wooden house may well be made independently. This will help the scheme shown below and recommendations. A sufficient detail the algorithm for the selection of materials, tools, manufacturing structural parts and finishing makes production and installation process even more simple.
varieties of stairs
To move between floors of a private house used by a variety of ladders. In this case, they are likely to make it out of wood - so they can be obtained and strong enough, light and beautiful. An additional advantage is the ease of processing the material, which allows you to install on your own.
The construction of wooden stairs to the second floor can be different. The most common varieties are:
Photos typical stairway, perfectly suitable for small private homes
- FLOATING - the simplest and therefore the most popular. They consist of one or more direct flights, on which are placed horizontal stage. The main disadvantage is the great sustainer design footprint.
On the other hand, the space under the stairs can isolate and use as a pantry or other utility room. To equip the living room there should not be - an example of Harry Potter shows that in this little room is not very comfortable.
- Spiral staircases - more complex in the design and construction, but it is much more compact. design is based on an axial portion to which are fastened arranged in a spiral stage. In addition to the small footprint can be attributed to the benefits of an attractive appearance: a spiral staircase may well become a central element of the interior of any room.
A spiral staircase in the entrance hall of a private house. All stages are attached to the shaft portion
Another compact embodiment of a spiral staircase: it combines a high functionality with a small footprint
- Stairs to the Bolza - a relatively new variety. Appearance resemble marching, but stage they do not rest on the inclined bearing elements and are hung from the ceiling or the carrying bar on long metal rods.
EXAMPLE ladder rails for mounting in the carrying bar
In principle, all the described structures can be made independently. However, if you previously did not face such problems, and this is your first experience, you should start with the cruise option. On it we will focus in the following sections.
Calculation of key parameters
Before proceeding to the purchase of materials and the manufacture of blanks for future construction, we need to decide on its main dimensions. Of course, you can use ready-made drawings of wooden stairs to the second floor (including the information contained in this article), but be aware of the dimensions of the basic elements is necessary.
Drawing ladder type propulsion optimum size parts
The scheme for selecting the flight of stairs inclination
Staircase connecting the two residential areas, must comply with the following requirements:
- Optimal march bias - from 1: 2 to 1: 2.7 (ratio of height to width). Accordingly, the angle of inclination of the lifting portion is in the range of 30 to 40 degrees.
- march size - from 4 to 18 stages. If the calculation results in large quantity, it is worth doing half-pace stairs with a platform in the middle. It is also desirable to make an odd number of stages in the march - and then start and finish motion we will be with one foot.
- The width of the march - a minimum of 750 mm. For the most comfortable moving the ladder to the second floor usually do not already 1 m, and the grand staircase of seating may be more than 1.5 m in width.
- step height - from 150 to 210 mm.
- The width of the tread (Stage plane part) - of 250-350 mm.
For these formulas it is convenient to determine the height of the steps and their width
The more gently sloping staircase we do, the greater must be tread. Usually used for calculation formula 2h * S = 600... 640 mm, where h - height of the stage, and S - width of the tread.
- The optimum size of the overhang (Projection above the vertical part of the tread) - not more than 50 mm. Otherwise there is a risk to hurt ledge toe.
EXAMPLE structure with dimensions of half-pace
There are requirements to load, which must withstand the design:
- The bearing capacity of the very stairs - not less than 200 kg.
- The bearing capacity of the railing or other enclosures - 125 -160 kg.
Materials and tools
Blanks for ladders and supplies
If we do a stairway very simple design, it for its production we will need the wood harvesting, and related materials.
Drawing Marching Saddle stairs to the size of the details
List of blanks include:
- For carrying portions (bowstring stringers) take massive beam or glued board. Part length should be slightly longer march size, the optimum thickness - 50 mm, width - 200-300 mm.
you can glue together a few blanks for manufacturing stringers
- Steps of making edged board thickness of 30 mm. For treads take minimum width of 30 cm board (you may need pruning) for risers - 20 cm. If parts made from precious wood, the flat part can be done not in one piece and components (usually the price of a narrow board below) for the manufacture of treads.
Tread made of massive or laminated boards
- For hidden structural parts acquire bars section of at least 40x40 mm. These blanks are universal in many respects, because they can be taken with some reserve.
- Handrail we will need handrails, balusters and posts. These details differ complicated shape, because it is easier to just buy off the shelf. However, in the presence of a lathe and the free time, you can save considerably, carved balusters few dozen hands.
Different forms of balusters
Turning on the machine balusters
All items must be fabricated from a whole and dry enough (no more than 8 - 12% moisture) of the wood.
The best breeds for manufacturing ladders are oak, ash, beech. To save and simplify the work can take part and pine, but then have to spend a lot of time and effort to fight gum stains. And pine strength is lower, because the wear levels will be much more noticeable.
The list of consumables comprises:
Adhesives for wood
- Fasteners - nails, screws, wood, Nagel staples etc.
- Joiner adhesive for joining wooden parts.
- Sandpaper - for the grinding of workpieces.
- Putty for wood.
Antiseptic impregnation of wood helps to keep
- Functional impregnation - antiseptics, fire retardants, etc. It is best to purchase a complex composition, which not only protects the wood from water damage by microorganisms, but also reduces its combustibility.
- Decorative compositions - varnishes, waxes, oils, interior paint, etc. It all depends on whether you want to emphasize the natural texture of wood, or conversely, to disguise it.
Varnished - one of the most popular types of protective and decorative treatment
Set of tools
For the manufacture of stairs fit the same set of tools, and other carpentry and joinery. Minimum list includes the following items:
Basic operation is performed using the sawblade
- Wood saw (preferably two - one rotary / reciprocating and a hacksaw).
- Drill with a set of drill bits.
- Chisel different size for the sample material.
For the formation of the grooves need chisels
- Hand router (if available - a very useful thing!).
- Level (preferably two - long for general construction leveling and short - for issuing of individual parts).
- Hand tool.
Control the position of parts is more convenient with a small level
How is the ladder
Production of the supporting frame
In this section, we'll show you how to make a staircase to the second floor with his hands. Start with the manufacture and installation of bearing parts.
Algorithm execution of works is described below:
Manufacturing of stringers (withs):
Installation of handrail balusters finished fixing and handrail
What can be done to ensure that our new staircase looked the most attractive? The list of works of finishing includes the following operations:
Filling putty all the gaps need to produce a perfectly flat povrehnosti
- Caulking. Take the finished putty for wood or self-mix wood dust, PVA carpenter's glue and paint the desired shade. These formulations fill all cracks, defects, and the installation location of fasteners then carefully dried for design. If you want to fill in the big hole, the filler should be applied in several layers, good prosushivaya each of them.
Particularly important sectors ladder grind manually
- Grinding. After drying putty take sandpaper or sanding machine and perform finishing of wooden surfaces. In the process of grinding remove all irregularities. Paying particular attention to the flat portion of treads and handrail.
Thoroughly grind all surfaces of the stairs by hand or power tool
After grinding desirable dedusted treated areas by wiping with a damp cloth and then - dried.
- Primer. Polished stairs treat antiseptic primer. The primer is applied in at least two layers with a pause of several hours between sets.
- Decorative treatment. All we reveal the surface with varnish, oiled wood or color - depending on what kind of results we are planning to get. Decorative materials are applied in thin layers in stages - so cover will be more uniform and therefore more durable and long lasting.
Stain or varnish ready ladder
Guided by The above tips, you'll be able to make a wooden staircase to the second floor. In this paper you will be shown above the diagrams and drawings, as well as informative videos in this article. All the questions you can ask in the comments - so you get the most rapid and complete response.