At a time when the greenhouse project is created, you need to decide which lights will illuminate the plants, whether carried out heating the structure. Since there are different types of lamps for lighting, you need to familiarize yourself in advance with their positive and negative sides in order to choose the most efficient and economical lighting.
- What kind of lighting should be in the greenhouse: the criteria for the selection of lamps
- Greenhouse with heating and lighting: it is better to install
- LED lighting greenhouses: features
- Fluorescent lighting in the greenhouse polycarbonate
- Lightingwinter greenhouses: mercury and sodium lamps
- lighting in the greenhouse with their hands( video)
What kind of lighting should be in the greenhouse: the criteria for the selection of lamps
Any greenhouse growe has a different demand in lighting. It is very important to choose the right lighting and calculate the right number of lamps. Normative calculations are carried out according to drawings of the greenhouse.
For photophilic vegetables, the light-day should be as long as possible to ensure their proper growth and maturation. Therefore, it is strongly discouraged to grow plants in one greenhouse, whose needs for lighting, humidity and temperature are different.
example, can not be under the same roof to grow peppers, cucumbers, tomatoes, mushrooms. You can, of course, install lighting on sites, but this is beneficial only for large industrial greenhouses and greenhouses.
In winter, the day is very short, so all the plants in the greenhouse need to be illuminated. To save the harvest, it is important to choose the most convenient lighting option, which will not hit hard on your pocket and at the same time, it's good to cope with your duties.
Criteria for selection of lamps for indoor greenhouses:
- illumination level ( measured in lux) - during winter in a greenhouse illumination rate should be 2-3 thousand lux..
- Emission spectrum .At different periods of vegetative development, plants require different ranges of spectrum - ultraviolet, blue, green, yellow, red.
- Manufacturer and pricing category .It is recommended to buy lamps of famous brands, the price of which is quite high. At least, these models are covered by a guarantee, unlike cheap Chinese counterfeits.
- Power - the indicator of the spent electricity for a continuous hour of operation of the device. For high-power lamps you need to build a good wiring that will withstand the load.
Do not rely entirely on artificial lighting - at any time of year, plants need natural sunlight. Therefore, when constructing a greenhouse, you need to use high-quality cover material, which will pass light well and at the same time protect the crop from wind and frost.
Greenhouse with heating and lighting: it is better to install
for growing plants in a greenhouse is necessary to maintain its own microclimate. For this you need to take care of lighting and heating.
It is known that soil temperature is important for seedlings. To do this, experts came up with the idea of laying in the soil hoses or pipes, through which hot water will circulate. In this way, not only the heating of the soil is achieved, but also the optimal distribution of heat over the entire required area of the hothouse structure. Pipes with hot water can be used partly outside, so that the air in the room is also warm.
There is another way of heating the soil - this is the installation of infrared heaters. Infrared heating works like the sun. Such heaters do not dry the air and do not even heat it. This type of heating is considered one of the most economical.
for heating and lighting of the greenhouse
If the soil is heated by an infrared heater up to 28 degrees, the air in the room will be approximately +21 C.
Artificial lighting is also very necessary for greenhouse plants. Especially in winter, when the sun is not enough for productive growth of vegetables and greens.
Lighting for greenhouses should complement or completely replace sunlight, while giving the necessary light for photosynthesis of plants. It is necessary to monitor the necessary amount of light released, depending on what is grown, at what stage of growth is the plant and take into account seasonality.
The best option is to install special lamps with LED lamps. They have rays of balanced concentration and only useful spectra. This is achieved through special phyto-diodes, which also will save energy.
LED lighting greenhouses: features
Lighting LED bulbs is today considered the most popular. LED lamps are used in many industries and can completely displace the usual incandescent lamps. LED lamps emit blue, red or combined light. For greenhouses, this radiation spectrum is the most suitable. Among the varieties of LED lighting, you can identify the usual lamps and tapes, which are mounted on a special panel.
Advantages of LED lighting:
- The correct emission spectrum;
- Long service life;
- Do not heat up;
- Resistant to low temperatures and moisture;
- Can work at low voltages.
Of course, the price of LED equipment rather big, but considering the long life, their value quite quickly recouped by savings of electricity. When installing fixtures, you need to carefully calculate, so as not to buy extra lamps. You can also set a special timer that will work on time, thereby saving electricity.
The power consumption of the LED lamps is 10 times smaller than that of a conventional incandescent lamp.
LED lamps are safe to use, they do not harm plants and humans and do not need special disposal.
Fluorescent lighting in the greenhouse polycarbonate
to create artificial light in polycarbonate greenhouses often use fluorescent lamps. Their price is relatively low, but, as experts say, such lamps are impractical.
Fluorescent lamps of cool white light emit violet rays, warm white - red beams. The combination of two such lamps is able to replace one lamp of natural light, and in finance it will come out cheaper.
Lamps do not heat up, which allows them to be mounted as close as possible to the leaves of plants.
Despite its advantages - long service life, high luminous efficiency, low price, fluorescent lamps have some drawbacks.
- depends on the temperature, by lowering the lamp may fade and not included;
- Contains mercury vapor that carries a certain amount of harm to others;
- Time required for incandescence;
- It is not recommended to switch on the lamp immediately after switching it off, this spoils the lamp;
- Over time, the brightness of the lamp is reduced, which leads to the need to install additional lamps in the lamp to ensure proper lighting;
- When the voltage in the network is reduced, the lamp will not light;
- Causes radio interference;
- Lamp power 150 watts maximum.
Fluorescent lamps are quite large, they can prevent the entry of natural light into the greenhouse during installation. Therefore, before mounting the fixtures, it is recommended to make a project in which to think over the details of the placement of lamps. They should not interfere with the sunlight to enter the greenhouse.
Lighting for winter greenhouses: mercury and sodium lamps
Any home greenhouse, even year-round, needs to be refreshed. Additional lighting can be done by installing mercury or sodium lamps. Mercury lamps do well their direct duties, but they are harmful to others.
must be strictly observed. Especially dangerous are broken mercury lamps - they can destroy the entire crop.
You will also have to completely change the soil, since it is unlikely to get mercury balls by hand. In addition, the lamps are heated very quickly, so they can not be placed next to the plants, leaves or flowers can get burned.
Sodium lamps are characterized by high luminous efficiency. They radiate useful red light, so necessary for flowering, but they do not suit fruit ripening. Therefore, the use of sodium lamps is possible in greenhouses.
Lighting in the greenhouse with your own hands( video)
Lighting of home greenhouses plays a major role in the cultivation of any plants, seedlings or flowers. If the design is designed for the winter, it is important to heat the greenhouse so that the plants do not get sick. For lighting and heating, many different lamps are used, but most farmers prefer LED lamps for light and infrared for heating.