Blooming tomatoes is necessary, as fruits appear in pollen flowers. But how to make artificial pollination in the hothouse conditions is not known to everyone, we understand below together.
- How to pollinate tomatoes in a greenhouse
- Self-pollinating tomatoes in a greenhouse
- Selecting self-pollinated tomato varieties for a greenhouse
- Effective preparations for pollination of tomatoes in a greenhouse
- Pollution of tomatoes in a greenhouse( video)
Tips: How to pollinate tomatoes in a greenhouse
Pollination is the sexual reproduction of plants when the pollen is transported from the flower to the stigma of the pistil( ovule).Pollination of plants can be divided into two groups, in one case the color is pollinated by itself or by living organisms.
- Rodents and so on.
However, there is also artificial pollination, when it occurs with the help of a person. In 1886 G. Mendel first made artificial pollination, which gave a breakthrough in genetics and development of new plant species. As an experimental object Mendel chose peas, over which he crossed. Nowadays the procedure of artificial crossing has not changed.
Depending on the structure of the flower, the boat is cut or removed before the corolla acquires anthocyanin color and opens.
Anthers are removed by cutting off the filaments by tweezers, and the necessary pollen is applied to the stigma without the need for any protection from further pollination. Either the flower opens, dust particles are collected and applied to the stigma of the pistil.
The procedure is based on two assumptions: the pestle acquires competence for pollination before opening the corolla, and pollination after opening the corolla for some crop plants.
Independent pollination of tomatoes in a greenhouse
A big plus, and also a minus of hothouses is that almost no insects fly in them. And how to wait for a good harvest, if only one bee has flown in during the flowering period of tomatoes, or none at all. Especially when the number of bees decreases every year.
There is a way out, this is artificial pollination, very laborious process, but the most productive.
The main task of artificial pollination is to collect pollen and apply it to female flowers. Before pollination, it is necessary to determine the male and female flowers. Male tomato flowers blossom earlier than females and larger in size.
Pollution is carried out:
- During the daytime;
- In the morning;
- In dry, sunny weather;
- And, the temperature in the greenhouse should not be more than 30 ° C, otherwise the pollen can become sterile and the fertilization process will be impossible.
With artificial pollination, the window and door of the greenhouse must be closed. Humidity inside the greenhouse is important, it should be up to 70% maximum. At high humidity, the pollen cools, becomes wet and can not fly off. To maintain the climate during pollination, it is necessary to reduce watering, to cover up the soil, to ventilate the greenhouse.
To collect pollen from male flowers, you can use a soft brush( which is used for drawing), a cotton swab, which must be carefully applied to female flowers( pistils).An alternative option for artificial insemination is an electric toothbrush, which is inserted over the flowers. The vibration produced from the toothbrush sets in motion the male flowers, pollinating the female flowers. Be careful, this method can be traumatic for the inflorescence.
In case of artificial pollination, sterile gloves should be worn to avoid sweating of hands, which can damage pollen. After the pollination is done, after an hour the inflorescence should be sprinkled with water, and ventilate the premises of the greenhouse.
We select the self-pollinated tomato varieties for the greenhouse
Choose tomatoes strictly according to the type of greenhouse, its climate. If the greenhouse is heated, with artificial lighting, high, then the choice of varieties of tomatoes increases dramatically and you can choose such seeds of tomatoes for planting as: Midas, Intuition, Scarlet Mustang, Anyuta, Simona, Chernomor, Cardinal, Brilliant, Slivovka, Cherry, Golden Bead, Mariska, Rocket, Pink giant, Amber and others.
If a summer greenhouse whose walls and roofs are made of old window frames, polyethylene film, unheated, it is necessary to plant early maturing varieties, Such as Gina, Mandarin, Trapeza.
Regardless of the place of planting, the selection of tomato varieties is carried out according to the following criteria:
- Resistance to diseases;
- Thermal stability;
- Taste preferences.
You do not need to collect pollen yourself and put on female flowers, you can install a fan in the greenhouse, which will transport pollen through airflow. It is also possible to open the windows in dry weather and preferably in the morning. To attract insects, you can make a honey solution in the proportions of 3 tbsp. L.Honey for 9.5 liters of water, and sprinkle all the inflorescences of tomatoes.
Gently shaking the plant can also lead to pollination. For this, it is necessary to hold the tomato by the stem and shake it slightly in different directions, such manipulations to perform with each plant. Shake it in the morning, when the dew has dried.
Effective preparations for the pollination of tomatoes in the greenhouse
To stimulate fruit formation, you can use the preparation Tomaton, Master. All stimulants affect generative organs and cause tomatoes to build up the vegetative mass, increase the volume of roots, reduce the loss of ovaries, reducing the ripening of fruits.
There are quite a few preparations for pollination, such as:
- 36 pollination;
- Gibberros and others.
Before you prepare the solution and make pollination, you need to wear gloves. Make sure the product is safe, read the instructions for use. Spray should be at a distance of 5 cm from the inflorescence spray, taking a flower in one hand, and turn it to spray solutions.
For intense tying and growth of buds, you can use a solution of boric acid, which is prepared with proportions of 5-10 g. Boron sour at 9.5 liters of water. The composition should be diluted in 8 liters of warm water, mixing well. Then gradually add the remaining amount of cold water.
Spraying is carried out with a spray gun, in the morning or in the evening with a closed greenhouse( without draft), in dry weather. Apply a solution of boric acid before flowering, after the process and even 1.5 weeks after flowering.
Pollination of tomatoes in the greenhouse( video)
It must be remembered that an overdose of stimulants and fertilizers leads to the opposite effect. If the rules are correctly observed, proper care and instructions for artificial pollination of tomatoes, then a good harvest is provided.