Coolant - a key substance that carries heat from the boiler to a group of heaters. For today, there are three main types of coolant - air, water and antifreeze. Steam, today, is used only in autonomous systems of industrial enterprises. Each type of coolant has its advantages and disadvantages, on which depends the system efficiency, the terms of its operation, the need for maintenance.
- What pour in heating private houses
- What should be the heating medium for heating
- air as a heat carrier for heating
- Heating Fluid: characteristics of water as coolant
- Antifreeze Heating: advantages and disadvantages choose
- antifreeze for
- heating system How to choose the heating medium for the heating system of a country house( video)
What pour inheating private house
What better pour the liquid in the heating circuit of a private house depends primarily on the type of the system. It is the type of the system that determines the quality and type of the coolant. It depends on this and how to properly fill the system.
determine the choice of coolant to follow these guidelines:
- Use antifreeze should be in systems with a powerful boiler and pump for forced circulation( this is due to the increased viscositySubstance);
- In systems of open type antifreeze is impractical: it will quickly evaporate or leak( because of the strong expansion), which will affect the financial costs to maintain the system in working condition;
- If you have chosen an antifreeze for an open system, then it must be "safe": do not release harmful substances when heated;
- Most manufacturers prohibit the use of antifreeze in systems with the presence of a wall gas boiler with a bithermal heat exchanger;
- If your gas boiler with single-circuit heat exchanger, the prohibitions of manufacturers of floor and wall units on the use of antifreeze is not;
- Fill the water, as a coolant, and the system can be open and closed type;
- For electrode boilers, use water with a certain electrical conductivity.
Thus, the water must be softened and purified. Ordinary water is rich in salts and oxygen. Therefore, in a system filled with ordinary water, corrosion and scale can soon form. You can soften water at home using chemical reagents or regular boiling.
What should be the heat transfer medium for heating
As mentioned above, the quality of the coolant depends on both the service life of the heating system components, health and tenants. In order to determine the choice of coolant, it is necessary to clearly outline the range of tasks with which the substance must cope, to identify its basic properties.
So, to the coolant for autonomous heating put forward such claims:
- He must remain in a heated state as long as possible. That is, the temperature of the coolant at the boiler should not be very different from the temperature of the substance at the radiators: the efficiency of the system depends on this.
- Enjoy high speed driving. That is, its viscosity should be minimal, otherwise the heat carrier will not disperse, and the room will warm up longer.
- substance must be fireproof, meet the hygienic standards and regulations, environmental safety.
- The heat carrier must be safe for the system. That is, it should not restrict the operation of all nodes of the system, be safe for pipes.
The cost of the coolant is also important: it must be available so that it can be used in the system without replacement for a long time.
air as a heat carrier for heating
Air - is the most affordable, safe for human health and the coolant lines. Passing through the system air, as a rule, is thrown directly into the atmosphere, without contaminating it. Due to the mobility of the air, it is possible to warm up the room quickly enough. In addition, air heating can be used to dry any materials without worrying about their flammability.
The disadvantages of air as a substance for the transport of heat is its low heat transfer.
Thus, research is determined that one cubic meter of air with a temperature of 45-50 degrees is able to allocate only 8-10 kcal of heat. This is several times less than what water can give. Therefore, in central heating systems, air is not used as a coolant. But for the heating of a small suburban or country house this coolant may well come up.
for heating liquid: water characteristics as the coolant
Water has long been the most common coolant. This is due, first of all, to its availability and high heat conductivity.
So, 1 kg of water with a temperature of 100 degrees, cooling to 70 releases about 10 kcal of heat.
In addition, from synthetic coolant water is characterized by its environmental friendliness: it is absolutely safe for humans, and it can be disposed of directly in the garden area. To replenish the volume of such a coolant, in case of a leak, it can almost immediately: fill the system with your own hands, topping up the water. Advantageously, water and low viscosity are distinguished: due to the rapid circulation of water, the room heats up faster. Therefore, this coolant is ideal for organizing a warm floor.
disadvantage of such coolant as water is that it expands upon heating, and during freezing.
Under subzero temperatures, water in pipes and aluminum radiators starts to freeze and expand, turning into ice. This can be fraught with a rupture of the pipeline, damage to the boiler, batteries. In addition, water is the main cause of corrosion and scale in the system. Therefore, in order to avoid premature failure of the heating system, a number of measures should be taken to filter and soften the liquid. The ideal choice as a coolant will be distilled water.
antifreeze for heating: the advantages and disadvantages
Antifreeze - is familiar to all car owners and motorists "nezamerzayku".The main advantage of such a coolant is that at low temperatures the antifreeze turns into a gel that can not harm the system. In addition, the additives that are added to the antifreeze make the coolant safe for the metal parts of the system.
As a rule, the non-freezing compound is designed for operation at extreme temperatures of -35 and -65 degrees Celsius.
Pour new substance into the pipeline every 5-10 years, which reduces the cost of maintaining the system in working order.
antifreeze The main drawbacks include:
- Its thermal conductivity that is 15% lower than the thermal conductivity of water;
- increase in viscosity, which slows down the "acceleration" of the system( especially in winter), and makes it impossible to rapid heating of the premises;
- large volumetric expansion( about 40%), because of which the main components of the system( such as a boiler and radiators) must be greater in comparison with the water heating elements volume.
In addition, most manufacturers prohibit filling their heating boilers with antifreeze.
Select antifreeze for heating systems
At present, there are several types of anti-freeze, different physical and chemical properties. So, the antifreeze is isolated on the basis of alcohol or brine solutions, ethylene glycol and propylene glycol.
It is antifreeze on the basis of ethylene glycol it is prohibited to use in systems of open type and in double-circuit boilers.
The first ban is due to the fact that when heated antifreeze will evaporate, releasing harmful components into the air. In the second case, in the event of breakdowns or leaks in the system, ethylene glycol can get into the hot water circuit. Therefore, such antifreeze can be used only in single-circuit boilers of closed heating systems. In this case, you should choose a substance based on ethylene glycol colored in red: so, in which case, it will be easier to localize leaks.
safest antifreeze for use in autonomous heating systems is considered to be propylene glycol.
It is non-toxic, does not freeze and is not capable of significant harm to the pipeline and the elements of its connection. The disadvantages of this antifreeze is its low thermal conductivity( lower than that of ethylene glycol by 15%) and a fairly high cost.
At extreme operating temperatures( up to 180 ° C) in the system, a liquid antifreeze based on triethylene glycol should be used.
This antifreeze has a high thermal stability. The only condition is the matching of application nodes heating system stated temperatures. Do not recommend to fill in the heating system car antifreeze.
How to choose the heating medium for the heating system of a country house( video)
Coolant - is an important element of any heating system, which determines the rate and extent of heating, the life of the system, the health of residents. For today, the most popular coolants for heating systems are water and antifreeze. When selecting materials for the heat transfer, attention should be paid to its chemical-physical characteristics, the type of heating system, the amount of the boiler circuits. Choose the safest and most suitable option is possible, using the above tips.