It is impossible to imagine a self-supporting wooden ladder without bowstring. All elements of the ladder are fixed on the string: steps, risers, railings. The bowstring is the main detail for wooden structures and a metal frame for various models of stairs. Inside the bowstring are the steps. Therefore, it must be reliable and of high quality to ensure the safe movement of people along the stairs. The bowstring is located on the side of the structure. Can be installed from one or two sides, depending on the model of the ladder and its way of installation.
- Wooden staircase on the strings: how does it differ from the staircase on the strings
- Metal ladder on the strings: installation rules and choice of bowstrings
- Stair for the stairs: what is it?
- Installation of stair strings: stages of work
- Stair installation on the strings: how to fit the upper part of the bowstring
- Stair for the stairs with your own hands: how to make
- Calculate stairs
Wooden ladder on the strings: the difference from the staircase on the strings
The principle of the staircase design on the strings as a whole does not differ from the installation on the strings. The bowstring rests on the upper and lower beam, and on them the remaining elements of the ladder structure. The same principle of building wooden stairs, which have in their structure Kosovars. But, the steps of the wooden stairs on the strings are supported in a different way. This is the difference of the ladder on the strings from the stairs to the Kosovars.
Features wooden staircase on the string:
- steps are inserted into slots supporting beams;
- The design can have one or two strings;
- Can be open and closed.
Ladder on the legs: the steps are supported from above by Kosowra. And the steps of the ladder on the strings are located between the two boards - the strings. With a vertical load, the tread slightly bends downward. Then straightens. At the ends of the stage, at the moment of loading, a spacer appears. For the design of the staircase to last a long time, and the bowstring does not "disperse" in the sides, use a metal rod. It acts as a connecting element. Its size in diameter is from 8 to 12 millimeters. At the ends it has a threaded connection and nuts.
Metal ladder on strings: installation rules and choice of bowstrings
Metal stairs can be of different types. There are ladders: screw, on strings, bolts, kosuroh. Metal is often used to make stairs or their individual elements. It is a durable and reliable material that can withstand heavy loads. Therefore, metal is suitable for making stairs on strings. You can make and install a simple metal ladder with your own hands. A metal channel can act as a bowstring. Steps are attached to it.
The largest width of the passage at the stairs should be at the level of the handrail and at the height of the hip.
At the feet, at the level of the bowstring, a smaller width is required. This is used to increase the gap between the flights of stairs and can shorten the length of the steps.
convenient location of the bowstring and the handrail is obtained when the gap between STAIRS twelve sentiment. But in this case, the rail is slightly offset to the axis of the ladder.
A ladder for a metal ladder can be of any shape:
The shape and size of the bowstring depends on the design of the staircase, its purpose and overall design. The supporting elements can be made of metal, and the steps of wood or other durable material. The whole ladder can be made of metal.
The steps can be attached to the string in several ways. To do this, use welding( if the design of the ladder is metallic) or additional fasteners( bolts, nuts, corners, brackets, screws), if the steps are made of wood( and the supporting elements of metal).
In this case, it is important not only how to fix the elements of the ladder on the bowstring, but also its effectiveness.
Bowstring: what it is
The bowstring is the main supporting element of the ladder. The strings are fastened to the strings. The bowstring can be in the design of a wooden staircase or in a staircase that has a metal frame. The bowstring is located on one side on the stairs, the other side of the stage is attached to the wall. Either the ladder has bow strings on both sides.
The bowstring can be made of different materials:
Their form can be different. Make a string on certain sizes and standards. It should be reliable, high-quality, durable. Make a string from a solid or modified board. Its thickness should be 60-80 mm, and the width 220-240 mm.
The bowstring must withstand not only all the staircase elements that are attached to it, but also large loads.
We make the fastening of the ladder string with our own hands
The ladder can have a string on one side or two. If the ladder march has only one bowstring, the second side of the steps will be attached to the wall. From the side of the wall, establish the bol'sa.
At home, you can make the entire structure of the ladder, including a string of wood. This material is less expensive than others. Metal stairs are also not expensive, but in the manufacturing process you will need special equipment( welding machine), which not everyone has. And fix the wooden string to the floor will be easier.
The bowstring can be attached to the floor in two ways:
- A hole is made in the floor screed and a support post is inserted into it:
- The string is fastened to the stand using steel anchors.
If there are joints in the ladder design, then you must have the experience of carpentry.
as a fastener for the bowstring. The easiest way to make the bearing beam assemblies is to use special ties. Over time, mortise places made with the use of glue, can loosen up. In this case, the staircase will start to make a creak. To prevent this from happening, use high-quality screeds.
Unlike the Kosoura, there are no cuts in the string. All fasteners are mounted to the side plane. What kinds of fastenings for steps exist?There are several fasteners: metal corners, grooves, bars, holes.
Stairway stitch installation:
work stages The staircase assembly begins with the installation of a bowstring or strings in the span. If the ladder consists of several marches, then you need to install an additional element - the pillar. Attach the upper part of the string to the post. In the installation of the spiral staircase, the pillar is an indispensable element.
Initially, you need to glue the entire structure to the glue. After adjusting the beams to the level of the floors, fix all the elements with special fasteners.
The installation of the strings of the ladder takes place in several stages:
- First you need to measure the length of the beam( which is fixed to the wall);
- Make it the right size( saw off excess);
- Apply markings to staircases;
- Fasten it to the transverse beam of the opening;
- Bottom attach the beam to the floor.
Stair installation on the strings: how to fit the top of the string
When installing a string to the wall, a number of difficulties arise. In order for it to stand smoothly and the design of the ladder was reliable, it is necessary to fit the bowstring in the upper part. Adjusting the bowstring is a difficult and responsible moment, which needs to be given the most time and effort.
Fit the bowstring in the upper part as follows:
- Collect the ladder march;
- Put the march on your side( the bowstring should lie on the floor);
- It is necessary to draw a line along the inner part of the riser and up to the upper step;
- Then draw a line from the trailing edge of the tread( frieze) to the level of the skirting board;
- Remove the upper stage;
- On the upper support stand, make a notch in advance;
- Attach and fasten the finished structure to it on the support post.
On the racks, grooves for the tongue should be made. The march is fixed on the screws to the string, and then to the wall and also to the support posts. With this fastening, the ladder design will be reliable and safe to use.
A ladder for the ladder with your own hands: how to make
The bowstring is securely attached to two planes - to the floor of the first floor and the ceiling, or to the half of the second floor. The ladder on the strings has a static construction. Parallel to each other, the beams are mounted on two supports.
You can make the string for the ladder with your own hands.
For the manufacture of the bowstring you will need the following:
- Milling machine;
- Electric jigsaw;
- Construction level;
- Rubber hammer.
First you need to prepare the board in order to use it as a string. It is necessary to remove burrs from it, level its surface, treat it with an antiseptic. If the board is larger than the required size, cut off excess.
You need to prepare a string for setting the stages. A simple long wooden board can serve as a bowstring. To do this, you need to make the correct calculation, make marks and cut out the nests.
hardware store. You can cut open sockets or closed slots. Or you can install fasteners by marking.
In the latter case, metal corners are used which act as fasteners. They are fixed along the entire length of the reference line, which is carried out in advance.
We calculate the ladder on the strings
The ladder is manufactured according to calculations. For this, there is a definite formula by which they are made. You need to calculate the dimensions of all the elements of the ladder march yourself.
Calculations are made according to certain rules, and the following should be considered:
- The incline of the ladder march should be 30 to 40 degrees;
- The depth of the step must be made under 45 shoe sizes( 28-30 cm);
- The length of the step must be 60-66 cm.
The depth of the step must be optimal so that the ladder is safe to operate.
If you can not provide a depth of a step of 28 cm due to the size of the bowstring, you'd better make the step wider. Then the ladder design will not have any drawbacks.
Stairs with bent strings: mounting process
It's very difficult to make a ladder with bent strings if you do it yourself. Many models of spiral staircases have in their structure curved shapes - bent bowstring and handrails. The fences of such stairs can be bent in all three planes.
Make a curved bowstring for a certain size. To do this, even use ready-made printed templates. They have a size of 1: 1.Precise marking on the string is made. It is necessary for the correct installation of steps, steps and fences.
The setting of the bent bowstring occurs in several stages:
- Veneer is attached using a slip( veneer is spread with glue)
- On the pile press veneer layers;
- In some places, the string is cut manually and adjusted to a specific size;
- Align the surface;
- Place the template on the string;
- Make grooves or g combs under the steps and risers;
- Grind the product;
- Assemble the entire structure;
- Color or varnish.
It is very difficult to make a ladder with bent strings independently. For this you need to have experience in carpentry. If you do not have it, you should contact the specialists for help.
How to attach a string for stairs( video)
You can create and install a ladder on the strings yourself. To do this, you must follow all the rules of installation, take into account the dimensions of the staircase, have all the necessary materials and tools. Preliminary to prepare a sketch of the future design of the ladder and the drawing. After making a bowstring: fasten the steps and rails on it, paint or varnish the whole structure and start using the stairs.