External staircases must not only be properly installed, but also be safe, strong, beautiful and in harmony with the design of the house. For today, there are many materials that are safe, have long service life and withstand high loads.
- External ladder: requirements of SNiP
- Advice on how to handle the outer staircase to the house
- Installation of external staircases: installation rules
- Lighting of external stairs to the second floor
- Consolidated rules for external staircases
- Order and requirements for external ladders( video)
- Design of external staircase to the house( photo examples)
External ladder: requirements of SNiP
Requirements for external staircases in the house, In accordance with established standards, indicate certain parameters.
- The width of the steps and the marches;
- The height of the steps and the inclination of the march - these parameters are taken into account for both young and old people and children;
- Location of all spans;
- Presence of fences and lighting.
for assistance. The installation and installation of the stairs to the second floor must be carried out by specialists, since the work will take place at a certain height, outside and using special equipment.
Projects of similar designs can be done, both with the help of the designer, and with their own hands, considering all the requirements.
Large public buildings have a more rigorous staircase design, and for your own home you can let your imagination run wild, and make different options for handrails, steps and fences.
Advice on handling the outer staircase to the house
Proper handling of all elements of the structure will allow it to retain its original strong and attractive appearance for years to come, and also significantly save money for re-repair or replacement.
Every concrete step is recommended to be treated with anti-slip material, in this case rubberized linings that will fit into each step will come to the rescue and preventLoss of balance in any weather.
For other types of materials, there are more reliable methods:
- Metal - the most optimal option is corrugated or punching;
- Stone or ceramics - suitable aluminum profiles with rubberized inserts;
- If the staircase has wooden steps, then they should not be smooth, but rough, it is also better to attach rubber pads to them.
Installation of external ladders: installation rules
Before starting the installation, you need to understand what shape the design has, because they have a variety of types.
There are several types of external staircases at home:
- With or without a platform;
- With porch;
At the request of the owners, it is possible to place stairs both close to the estate and parallel to it. They can also be simple or closed, having different sizes, height. Facing is allowed, both from a brick, and simply with the use of other upholstery materials. The facade of the house and the entrance doors can be decorated with various elements of decoration, forging, timber, any kind of wood, or a garden made of non-ferrous metal.
The simplest option for self-assembly of the ladder is the acquisition of ready-made construction segments, they fold quickly and easily, you just need to have an assistant.
A more complicated way is to collect each element separately. Here you can not do without certain knowledge or skills, but it is better to entrust such work to specialists. They will do everything in the shortest possible time, and the owners will be sure of the correctness of the assembly. For fixing the entire structure to the building, it is better to use steel pipes or lightweight metal profiles.
In addition to these materials, they can also be used to combine them, only it is necessary to take into account the influence of weather conditions on certain elements. Also it is necessary to take into account the number of steps, after which the platform should follow. Most often they are made from 7 to 12 pieces, the maximum number can be no more than 15, after such an amount, there must necessarily be a playground on which an elderly person can rest.
Lighting of external stairs to the second floor
Staircase lighting is no less important than the construction itself. In order to fully comply with the standards, it is necessary to establish a sufficient level of illumination on the structure so that there are no risks of falls, and also insulate and hide the wiring, away from children's curious eyes and weather influences.
Failure to comply with these conditions can be a factor triggering an accident.
For correct lighting installation, it is necessary:
- Know the basics of the electrician;
- Have the necessary materials for stripping, installation and insulation of wires;
- Have the necessary documents permitting the installation of similar lighting outside the building.
All requirements are specified in the SNiP, and any violation or deviation from the norm involves the owner's liability before the law, these can be penalties and warnings.
Consolidated rules( SP) for external ladders
To avoid injuries, basic standards must be adhered to.
- The height and width of the steps must be the same throughout the perimeter of the structure, this will avoid sharp slopes, and do not damage the legs during fast walking or running;
- Fencing on the stairs is better to use continuous, this rule dictates the definition of the law, and is also a guarantee of security;
- The slope must be built in such a way that it can protect everyone who moves along the stairs.
In large buildings and apartment houses, there are necessarily external fire and evacuation ladders that are designed to save people's lives at a certain catastrophic moment. For such structures, the relevant bodies also make a series of stringent requirements, and constantly check their readiness for different types of evacuations. For such purposes, use a crane, and a device such as an electronic dynamometer, and a winch with a load.
The slightest deviation from the norm indicates that the structure is in a pre-emergency condition and may not withstand a heavy load during an emergency. Most often, for residential houses this type of material for stairs is used, such as expanded metal, it is a light enough material consisting of a grate, and can also be self-cleaning and not slippery in extreme frost or after rain. Pressed grating is a material capable of withstanding heavy loads and not deforming during the evacuation of a large number of people.
In accordance with the standards, it is forbidden to erect such types of external staircases:
- With the presence of steps for which, in case of emergency evacuation, it will be difficult to get a foot;
- Stairs of screw type;
- With curves or broken curves;
- With the presence of a different size of the steps.
After complete work on the installation of the ladder, you need to make sure that there are no sharp corners about which a person can get injured, welds and rust welds should not be visible on the surface, you also need to inspect the metal for cracks, because even a small problemCan lead to an accident.
According to the law, all fire ladders are to be marked:
- Signs must be applied clearly, with a water-washable paint;
- Indicates the manufacturer of the structure and its logo;
- Complete and accurate production date;
- Product name, series, number and dimensions.
The marking shall be located either on the right side of the ladder or on the beam of the platform.
Order and requirements for external staircases( video)
Especially carefully it is necessary to monitor the contents of the ladder and the area around it. Any violation can involve penalties, and force the owner to be held accountable for their non-compliance.