Wood from which the
furniture board is made. Sawn timber, including boards and bars, are made of almost all existing types of wood, so in order to choose the one that is suitable for your purpose, it is necessary at least to some extent to understand the characteristics of wood. It is also important to know the reliability and durability of each breed.
For example, for garden furniture, timber from birch is completely unacceptable, but a pine board is almost universal, the table from it will be as reliable as a log cabin. Furniture made of spruce, if not varnished, will always delight you with a pleasant aroma, however, it has one essential drawback - knotty. However, the spruce boards and the beam are very soft and perfectly amenable to processing, the furniture of them is light and light.
Some types of wood after cutting can change its color, in particular, the pine cut down in summer often turns blue, the alder turns red, and the oak begins to darken on contact with moisture, the stained oak, which has been lying in water for a long time, is almost black.
Oak sawn timber is very hard, heavy, it is difficult to drill and plan, but the cabinet or table from this wood will be, albeit almost impossible, but solid and almost eternal. It is important to know that when the oak is only felled, the moisture content in it reaches 70%, after 6 months of natural drying, the moisture content of the wood will become about 43%, after a year - 38, after one and a half - 27%.
But for the production of furniture, the moisture content of sawn timber should not exceed 18%, therefore, it is necessary to choose oak boards of two years of natural drying. Wood of birch and aspen does not tolerate dampness at all, therefore it is desirable to cover furniture from these rocks with several layers of varnish.
How to process sawn timber for furniture?
The very first treatment is drying of boards and beams after sawing logs. If you are making logs with your own hands or purchased them raw directly on the sawmill, do not forget that as the boards dry up, they can start to warp, the inner annual layers dry out more slowly than the outer ones and the surface of the material can be arched in a cross section.
To avoid warping, place a bucket of water near the drying lumber. In order for boards to dry faster, it's better to keep them off, if possible, immediately make furniture blanks, the moisture percentage in them will be less quickly than if they are solid boards.
Any tool for chip removal from sawnwood is called a plow and consists of a body, a knife, a wedge, a handle and an abutment behind the knife. Strict wood always follows the fibers and in no case against them, if you do not want to make the cobbles on a smooth surface. The knife should be placed at an angle of 45 degrees, a smaller angle leads to stiffening of the fibers, and a larger one to scraping. Saw the wood with a special saw, a hacksaw or an archway.
The saw teeth can be oriented to longitudinal, transverse sawing or at an angle to the fibers. Many use for this purpose the same saws of mixed sawing with teeth in the form of a rectangular triangle. For longitudinal sawing, the teeth should be oblique in shape with a slope in the direction of saw movement, that is, from you. The saw, whose teeth are in the shape of an isosceles triangle, is intended only for perforated sawing.
How to make a furniture board yourself?
Once, to get a large wooden panel from the array, take a log and polish it until you get a thick shield of the right size, and not only that the waste leaves most of the wood, the width of the element depended only on the thickness of the trunk. Today, you can get such a panel of any width and length, because it is made of interconnected ribs boards.
In other words, if you take 10 boards of 15 centimeters wide, you get a shield, the width of which will be one and a half meters. The length of the panel will correspond to the length of the boards.
For manufacturing, several large clamps are needed, such devices are also called wigs, as well as coils with a long shoe, by which we process the edges of the boards to perfect smoothness. We determine the direction of the annual layers on all the boards, which must be located with the same orientation of the direction of the fibers. This is done in case of possible deformation of the shield under the influence of certain factors, which will pass for all the boards in one direction.
Grease all the side edges of the parts with glue and connect them together so that the ends lie on the same line. Clamp the edge of the edge of the clamps, thereby tightly connecting the boards with each other( they must make an even plane).
Remove the excess glue that emerged from the joints, until it is dry, otherwise there is a risk to blunt the jointer. When the glue is completely solidified, the panel will need to be re-machined once again, this time along the planes, in order to make joints as unobtrusive as possible.