Wooden stairs to the second floor have become an indispensable element of the interior of many buildings.
Of course, for the manufacture of stairs, not only wood is used, but also concrete, brick or various metal alloys are used as materials.
But, nevertheless, in the cottages, multi-level apartments and holiday homes most often install wooden stairs, because they are in themselves a highlight in the interior.
In the photo, the article will show the stairs made of wood, successfully combined with the overall design of the room.
Thanks to its presentable appearance, wooden stairs do not need to be hidden, rather, on the contrary, if expensive wood is used as a material, the design is placed in a prominent place, and not infrequently special attention is paid to it.
At the same time, the cost of construction depends not only on the wood chosen, but also on the person who performs the installation work.
If you hire professionals to work, then it goes to a decent amount, if you can do all
To implement the drawings of wooden structures in life, a variety of wood species are used.
The photo below shows images of different types of wood in a section.
Types of wood
- Screw stairs
- Floating structures
- Stairs on the sides
Types of wood
Stair constructions on the second floor, for the development of which the same drawings were used, but constructed from different types of wood, can havenot only different costs, but even quite different in appearance.
The most commonly used for the manufacture of stairs are:
- Spruce timber as one of the most budgetary. Spruce is characterized by a uniform texture, light tint and poor exposure to negative external factors;
- Oak, which goes in contrast to the cost of spruce. For stairs to the second floor use a solid grade of wood with a beautiful light tint. According to the performance characteristics of the structure of oak are considered one of the most durable. In this regard, the price of its timber is one of the highest in the price segment;
- Beech wood, which can be either light gray or reddish-yellow in color. The material has a slightly expressed texture, low strength and is easily exposed to external influences. If, for example, there is a high humidity in the house, the wood begins to expand quite strongly, as if absorbing moisture into itself, which can lead to changes in the design. Therefore, projects from beech are advised to be done only in houses with good heating and lack of high humidity;
- Larch, distinguished by golden or dark yellow hues and having characteristic veins in light-brown wood. Larch has high strength, well tolerates mechanical influences and the influence of time, while the price of the material is quite acceptable;
- Ash, which has light shades and a beautiful pattern of fibers. If you plan to do all the work with your own hands, then the ash is just perfect. The material is extremely light in processing, it is easy to bend, and in strength it in some moments even exceeds the oak parameters. At the same time, it is minimally affected by external factors;
- Maple wood is also very popular, as it has a non-porous surface, which greatly increases the strength of the material. Due to the fact that the maple does not absorb moisture, the device of such a ladder can be carried out at the cottage( suburban areas, as a rule, are characterized by high humidity).But the material is rather difficult to handle with your own hands and the price for it is far from being budgetary.
Of course, to make a wooden structure for lifting to the second floor, you can use more budgetary options, for example, pine or chipboard( with laminated chipboards it is much easier to work with your own hands than with the array).
But we should not forget that budget materials are not very robust, and they will by themselves require some caution when using them.
For example, on the steps of pine appear small pits and scratches not only from the heels, but even from the rigid corrugated soles.
But do not think that the pine should be abandoned as a matter of material. To date, there are many ways of processing the surface of wood to extend its performance.
Modern material processing technology and special paint materials that can be coated on the surface make a simple pine staircase on the second floor into a real work of architecture.
If you cover the pine with a hard parquet varnish, this will provide an opportunity to protect the wood from external influences.
The application of toning and coloring makes wood more refined and gives it a rich look. You can also cheat and do the calculation by combining different types of wood in one design.
For internal fasteners to start more budgetary materials( to sew the back side of the chipboard), and the external part, for example covering the steps, to make of more expensive and high-quality wood.
The photo below shows such an assembly structure.
Types of stairs
Most often in private houses or in cottages in the countryside you can find:
- a spiral staircase;
- the flight of stairs;
- ladder on the bolts.
Let's study them more thoroughly, in order to understand which staircase is best suited for self-assembly.
Screw constructions are used for a small house or a small house. You can remove the dimensions and make drawings with your own hands. First of all, the size of the steps is important.
The average length of the stage of construction ranges from 50 cm to 1 m. Hence, the total length of the entire structure will be from 1 to 2 meters, that is, it will not be possible to lift any dimensional objects on it.
The smaller the opening, the steeper the staircase.
A similar design may not be very convenient, but it requires extremely little space.
Screw constructions are often used in the form of auxiliary ladders for lifting to the second floor, which is an attic or a residential attic. The photo shows this screw structure.
The calculation of the steps is carried out according to a certain scheme, in which the width of the steps must be at least 20 cm and the widest part should not be larger than 40 cm.
The steps of this design can be of a very different shape. Fastening of steps in the form of wedges is done around a special rack( as a rule, metal is used for the rack).
The steps are assembled in such a way that the narrower side is fixed to the rack, and the wide one is mounted on the balusters or the wall.
The following picture shows an example of this fastening of screw stages.
Screw structures are located both near the bearing walls and in the middle of the room. Despite the fact that they are extremely beneficial in terms of saving space, their production is not so popular.
The given moment is explained by a certain degree of danger, which, one way or another, arises during the operation of the structure.
The climb and especially the descent require some care and attention from the household, so if there are children in the house, the spiral staircase is not the best option.
Calculation and creation of these designs initially takes into account the standard biomechanical movements of a person when climbing and descending the stairs, which makes the stairs extremely convenient and popular.
But for such a project it takes a lot of space, so you can not make a march construction in any house, much less inside a small dacha.
The design is calculated as follows:
- to begin with the measurement of the height of the wall and the length of the floor;
- after the calculation requires the drawing of a triangular structure( the legs are a wall and floor covering, and the hypotenuse is a ladder).The ideal location is the location of the structure on the second floor at an angle of 45 degrees.
As you can see, this work and drawing is extremely easy to perform, the calculation does not require much effort, and you can do it all with your own hands.
In this case, each march must contain a minimum of 3 steps and not more than 15 steps. If you break this calculation, use the design will be inconvenient.
The width of the steps must also be calculated taking into account the maximum convenience( it should completely place the human foot).
A flight of stairs leading to the second floor can be open or closed. In the closed structure, the steps have podstupenniki, the open construction of the podstupennikov has not.
The stairwell can be both direct and turnable. For a straight flight, a longer length is needed, the swing design takes up much less space.
Professionals advise to make a similar ladder along the wall, then under it you can still put a small utility room, so use the space with the maximum benefit.
The photo below shows a variant of the staircase leading to the second floor, with a utility room located under it.
Ladders on the sides
These are staircases, fixed with pins or bolts( literal translation from German).
Fastening of wooden steps for lifting to the second floor is made to the bearing wall by special boltsami.
This design looks very easy and free and is ideal if the house has been made an interior design in the style of high-tech.
As the steps are mounted to the wall, this ladder can not be located in the middle of the room.
However, such designs are extremely popular.
From the side the staircase seems light and weightless, but at the same time it has the necessary reliability and durability.
You can calculate this design by yourself, the calculation must take into account the use of a special rubber layer for bolts( rubber gaskets protect the wall from cracking, and also improve the fixation of the fasteners themselves).
The photo below shows the options for the stairs on the bolts.
Useful advices for
If you plan to make a design yourself, no matter what design you choose, the calculation should be made taking into account certain recommendations of professionals.
When choosing a ladder design, first of all, consider the size of the room where the structure will be located.
If the room has a large area, then it makes no sense to dispose of an inconvenient spiral staircase, it is possible to build a march construction.
Conversely, if the room is small, a large staircase will be extremely irrational, as it will eat up a lot of useful space.
The design should be done with all the facilities for operation. The most convenient and safe, of course, consider the flight of stairs.
But it is necessary to correctly calculate the parameters of the width of the tread and the height of the lift, and correctly build all the steps( the first and last are considered the most dangerous).
It is also necessary to calculate the load, which is 1 square meter of the step( in a residential house this figure is 300 kg, in a public complex not less than 400 kg).
The wood for protection must be covered with a special varnish, then the wood will not only last longer, but it will also have a more presentable appearance.
In addition, if for some reason you have mistaken the shade of the tree, you do not need to worry, there are varnishes that have a special toning that can give the surface a certain shade( before applying the varnish the tree needs to be covered, or even better - soaked with fire retardant, so itwill become less combustible).
If you accurately calculate all the components of the project and properly carry out the installation yourself, the ladder will be without a slope, with steps located at the right angle.
Therefore, special attention should be paid to the design. If you are not confident in your abilities, then it is better to provide this work to professionals.
Remember that each ladder is individual and designed for a specific house.
If you liked the design of the ladder installed by your neighbors, then you do not have to try and make an exact copy of it immediately.
It's important to first examine your own room to understand which design best suits your parameters and only after that it is ready to be manufactured.
Do not be afraid to experiment, the ladder can turn out beautiful and original and without the help of designers.
If you decide to make the most budgetary option and take the chipboard at the same time, do not try to hide the ladder, try to accentuate it by painting the steps in bright colors.
This kind of rainbow in the house will not only please the children, but will also raise the mood to all those around you.
You can also use a special device for burning out a picture on a tree.
Having invented your own ornament, you will make the design truly exclusive and unique, and it will look no worse than any design project.