Make a pool of concrete with your own hands in the country, despite the apparent complexity, really, even if only for a few weeks and at a high cost of material.
In the opinion of the layman, a concrete pool is a tank with a system for recruiting and discharging water.
Indeed, concrete pools are simple in design, unless, of course, you have nothing to do with the prefix "hi-tech".
On how to build a concrete pool at the dacha properly with your own hands, what are the nuances, how to trim the bowl and what is the technology, we will tell in the text with the video.
- 12 nuances of construction
- Construction: from design to concrete pouring
- Waterproofing: methods and technologies
- Finishing of bowl
12 nuances of construction
It seems to be early to talk about construction, you first need to penetrate the concrete basin.
But we immediately decided to give 12 nuances of construction, which will give a complete picture of what constitutes concrete pools, the device and technology of their construction in the country.
- Site of construction - it is necessary to carry out ground exploration for water, because the rise of underground water can result in construction being completed before it begins;
- Garbage - if the foliage falls off the leaves, it makes sense to make a skimmer pool - with a filter that constantly renews the upper layer of water;
- Indoor pool - put the roof, plastic walls and get a pool in the room. And if there is room and water, then there must necessarily be ventilation;
- Neighborhood with buildings - the foundation of a nearby building will pressure the pit and may itself suffer;
- The corner of the excavation - the pit is always wider and bigger than the bowl, therefore it is necessary to take into account the digging angle, especially the sand. It is free-flowing; therefore, piles of piles are used, shields;
- Boiler indoors - the depth does not exceed the depth of the basement;
- Podsypka - we are talking about river sand, which absorbs well groundwater;
- Pouring - a concrete cushion must go out and out 20 mm on all edges. The higher the negative water pressure in the soil, the more the pillow should protrude. Otherwise, the concrete will rise above the level by a few centimeters;
- Formwork - concrete pools on the principle of erection - the same bulk foundation of the building. With the formwork, the walls and the bottom of the pool are reinforced in different planes, the reinforcement is laid horizontally and vertically with a bandage;
- Pouring - Filling technology speaks of a period of up to 10 days, otherwise concrete will not gain the required strength. On a hot day, the concrete should be moderately moistened. And the most important techno-nuance point: concrete at the bottom is rammed by an electric vibrator over the entire surface;
- Exposure - under conditions of normal temperature and humidity, the bowl is aged for almost a month, so that the concrete is completely dry. For 2 weeks, concrete pools are not made;
- Contractors - all work must be performed by one contractor. If the foundation pit is digging one company, facing and design is different, then this is not a contractor, but an intermediary, and you overpay.
Construction: from design to pouring concrete
It's time for detailed instructions( see video).We will describe all sides of the pouring of the concrete pool, because it is technologically correct to say "pouring".
There are no formulas and calculations in the design. The main thing to consider the main points. We choose a site in the country and conduct exploration for groundwater.
Choose the type of placement of the bowl - level with the site or with a rise. Estimate how many people will fit in it: for an adult it takes 5 meters of length and about 1.5 meters of depth.
So if the family is big, then at least 8-10 meters long and 4 meters wide are needed. Decide on the shape and size.
Calculate the thickness of the walls and the bottom - these variables depend on the depth of the pool and the level of groundwater in the country. We design drainage, steps, lighting. Think about a water discharge system.
It is better to dig the excavation with the help of machinery. A tractor with a bucket will dig the right foundation pit in just a couple of hours. But you need to know the structure of the excavation.
Increase the size of the foundation pit so that they fit both the bowl and all communications at once, which means that the thickness of the formwork, concrete, all communications and the dimensions of the bowl itself are laid in the calculations.
Observe the angle when digging: there should be a small angle of deviation from the vertical - the ground will not crumble.
Drainage - you need a place for drainage so that the water outside the pool does not accumulate and does not spoil the landscape.
When digging, the bottom is laid with a slope of 5-7% towards the drain: for each meter of the bottom - 2-3 cm of slope.
Pillow made of sand and gravel allows you to pour concrete into the concrete. On the bottom of the boiler a mixture of crushed stone and sand with a thickness of 30-35 cm is poured. We put boards from the board along the walls of the pool, but not more than 50 cm in width.
Make the crate: we cut a peg every half a meter, which will protrude above the ground,the height of the wooden board. Sew the panels to the frame on both sides.
We connect the stakes with jumpers and put the supports under the shields. For 1 cubic meter of concrete you will need 320 kg of cement, 170 liters of water, 620 kg of sand and 1250 kg of rubble.
To calculate the number of ingredients for a solution, given the size of the project, it is better and easier to use a calculator-online.
For the screed, the composition of the V-25 is used, and for the bowl, strictly hydrotechnical - the strength of the brand is V-24P4W6 and water resistance is not lower than W6.
When the bowl is ready, you can also pour steps on the formwork, or you can put the ladder in the finishing trim on the anchor bolts.
After casting the concrete, it will be almost a month before you can begin to finish.
The excavation, shuttering, filling of the screed and the whole bowl are the most costly and technologically challenging tasks, and everything that follows - decoration and design - is the most pleasant and simple.
Concrete pool with your own hands is almost ready, it's now behind the insulation and trim.
Waterproofing: methods and technologies
A concrete pool must necessarily be waterproofed from the effects of groundwater, like the bowl itself from constant water.
Waterproofing serves to prevent the destruction of concrete due to penetrating through the pores and small cracks of moisture.
If the waterproofing was not done in time when the cup is poured, then any cracks, even 1 mm, will lead to damage to the bowl and waterproofing afterwards, in an attempt to save the situation, will not help much.
Coil and coating materials are used for insulation. The coating is applied to the foundation of the bowl from the inside. Typically, a polymer composite insulating composition is used.
The roll is used exclusively for external insulation.
Insulation is needed from inside and outside the bowl, which means that it takes exactly two layers: the outer layer is obtained when injected into the solution prior to pouring additives - polymers and minerals, which improve strength and hydrophobicity.
The inner layer is applied before the finish. Usually, an insulation coating is used.
Today, there is a large selection of materials for insulation.
Polyethylene is the cheapest material, but in case of the slightest leakage, you will have to completely change the entire layer.
Membrane film - PVC, EPDM and others - high-quality material, the installation of which requires qualification. It is worthwhile, but durability and environmental friendliness nullify the high cost of installation.
Mastics - composite composition from the discharge of penetrating insulation. The market includes a wide variety of mixtures like Penetron, Kalmatron, Ksipeks - dozens of them.
Bentonite mat - sodium bentonite in its composition - a natural material. It differs from all other self-regeneration: the gel seals the cracks, because bentonite perfectly resists any damage.
The only drawback - the mat does not tolerate a strong head of water, as the granules are washed away.
Liquid rubber: insulation without a single seam. A sort of gold standard.
Liquid glass is a new type of material - impregnation-polymer. It is an aqueous emulsion of resin-polymer, which penetrates into the thickness of the wall of the bowl and eventually turns into plastic.
Coating is a paste-like composite composition that is smeared on concrete pools completely.
Bitumen - in this list is presented only as a tribute to the technology of the past. Only one flaws.
Finishing the bowl
Finishing is the final stage. There are several options for finishing.
Plaster - simple cement mixtures concrete pools do not recognize - their adhesion is poor. First you need to fix the plaster grid.
Although an anti-corrosion coating is applied to the mesh, water can still penetrate through the plaster and it will begin to crumble.
To prevent this, synthetic mesh and waterproof plaster are used.
Tiles - tiles with a large water absorption from 0.14 to 1% have anti-slip elements, and the best - German and Italian.
The tile is laid on waterproof glue, the seams are rubbed with a firm trowel.
Mosaic is a mosaic road and is rare. Its high cost is associated with a complicated finish, which can be done by a few specialists.
Film - provides additional tightness, even if there are cracks in the concrete. Has a ribbed surface for the steps. Tip: you need to put it so smoothly that there is no swelling, no folds.
The sheets are joined together by warm welding, and the seams are supplemented with sealant.
Make a concrete pool at the cottage requires tangible costs and more than 1 month of work.
We did not consider the design of the pool project from concrete blocks or from rings, which implies the use of ready-made concrete rings, but the filling of the bowl to your taste.
Concrete pools are relatively easy to build, but there is a clear description of all the technology that must be strictly observed and then the result will surpass any expectations.
A pool made of concrete, and with their own hands - a source of pride and experience, which will teach you to pour concrete, tinker the foundation and finish the surfaces at once.