Sooner or later, but there necessarily comes a time when you need to think about replacing the device account for electricity consumption. There are many reasons - the old counter can serve the manufacturer's deadline, become unusable, cease to meet the requirements of the existing or modernized domestic electricity network, just does not fit into the apartment interior. There is also yet one reason that prompts hosts to decide on replacing this device - a differentiated system for charging electricity consumption.
That is why all the big demand among consumers began to use electric meters two-tariffs as to which will be recommended in this publication.
What system multitariff accounting
- 1 What is the system of multi-tariff accounting
- 1.1 Video: What are tariff meters
- 2 meter selection parameters with separate billing
- 2.1 type on the principle of operation of the meter
- 2.2 Accuracy
- 2.3 meter Single-phase, three-phase, maximum current
- 2.4 Availability and type of communication interfaces
- 2.5 Additional meter options
- 2.6 Разновиby type of installation
- 3 What to pay special attention when buying the counter
- 4 Popular counter models with differentiated tariffing
- 4.1 SOE - 55
- 4.2 "Mercury-200"
- 4.3 "Energomera-CE-102"
- 4.4 Video: multi-tariffNeva counters
It is known that the consumption of electricity at different times of the day is significantly different. Power engineers conditionally divide day and night into five consecutive alternating zones:
- Night - with minimal consumption, lasting from 23.00 to 7. 00
- Morning peak - from 7.00 to 9.00.The population wakes up massively, prepares to go to work, includes a huge number of electrical appliances, work shifts begin at the enterprises.
- Daytime semi-peak, from 10.00 to 17.00 - the consumption is somewhat equalized for the account of reducing the "home" load, but remains enough high due to the work of a large number of enterprises and institutions.
- Evening peak - from 17.00 to 21.00. "Rush hour" on all types of electric transport, return of consumers home with an understandable mass inclusion of lighting, heating or air conditioning systems, computers, televisions, all types of household appliances, including energy-intensive - electric stoves, boilers, washingand dishwashers.
- Evening half-peak, from 21.00 to 23.00, when the total load on the electricity network begins to gradually decline due to the end of household business and the gradual withdrawal of the population to bed.
The graph shows the approximate level of electricity consumption, built on the basis of statistical data of one of the largest cities in Russia - St. Petersburg.
Similar load jumps extremely negatively affect the condition of power lines and, and most importantly, the operation of power plants. On a large account , this leads to irrational use of energy resources, accelerated wear and tear of generating and transforming equipment, and even to certain deterioration of the ecological situation in the region.
To minimize such changes and minimize the consequences of such jumps, the system of differentiated tariffication of of consumed electric power was developed. The main goal of this approach is to maximally motivate the population to reduce consumption during peak hours and to transfer many energy-intensive home processes just for the time of the so-called "night dips" of .
This policy is introduced in many regions of Russia, although the established tariffs can vary quite widely in regions and cities. But the night rate is always much lower than the daily rate.
For example, in St. Petersburg from January 1, 2015 the following cost is set for 1kW consumed electricity( in parentheses the cost of a kilowatt is indicated for houses where stationary electric cookers are installed and ( or) provides electric heating of premises):
|Type of tariff||cost 1 kW, rub|
|General, in the absence of meters with separate accounting for consumption by time||3.53( 2.47)|
|Daylight, for semi-peak and peak zones when using multi-tariff countingfrom||3,55( 2,49)|
|Preferential night, from 23.00 to 7.00||2,14( 1,50)|
In some regions,in particular, Moscow and Moscow area, there is a possibility of even a three-level tariffication with the separation of semi-peak and peak zones:
|tariff type cost 1 kW, rub|
|General, in the absence of meters with separate time consumption accounting||4.68( 3.28)|
|Daily, dLpeak and peak zones using two-rate meters, from 7.00 to 23.00||4.91( 3.44)|
|Daylight for peak areas, from 7.00 to 10.00 and from 17.00 to 21.00, using meters with multi-level charging||4.92( 3,45)|
|Daytime for the semi-peak zones, from 10.00 to 17.00 and from 21.00 to 23.00, when using meters with a multilevel rating||4.08( 2.85)|
|Preferential night, from 23.00 to 7.00||1.26( 0,88)|
Even a quick glance shows that the cost of "night" and "peak" electricityThe electric energy can sometimes differ by almost four times. And if you sit down and use a pencil in your hands and a calculator( computer) to analyze your home consumption, you can achieve a very significant savings.
For example, for the night hours, you can take out all washing - modern washing machines allow you to program this process with a delayed start. This can also apply to dishwashers. If a powerful boiler is at home, it is also better to heat the water at night, creating a reserve of hot water, which is enough for a day. The modern "smart" kitchen technique is fully capable of preparing the to the owners of the hot breakfast, finished in the all manipulation until 7am. It can give a good economy and rational use of heating or air conditioning devices, with taking into account the inherent in them "intellectual" capabilities. And for a fairly large category of people related to "owls", such a billing - in general, is just an find.
In a word, two - or multi-tariff system of accounting consumption opens a wide range of possibilities for serious cash savings. However, before it will be necessary to make a material investment - to purchase the corresponding counter .
Video: why do you need multi-tariff counters
meter selection parameters with separate charging
Before you start choosing electric power meter with separate charging, you need first of all , to know exactly whether the specific populated point system of differential payment. The multi-tariff counter is much more expensive than usual, and, therefore, its acquisition should be justified.
Moreover, we need to clarify the number of charging levels - as we have already seen on above given by , there may be two or more of them. It is possible that this gradation may more - for example, with separate taking into account on working days and days off or even by the time of year - similar experiments are being conducted, and in some countries this has already been implemented in European countries. Some models of modern meters have a sufficiently large technological "reserve" - electronic scheme allows you to program their work with the maintenance of separate accounting for 8 or even 12 different modes.
Type counter according to the principle of operation
All counters electric power can be divided into two large groups - induction and electronic.
Induction counters are familiar to everyone - they still recently stood ubiquitous .The current consumed through the coil's coils created an electromagnetic field, behind the account of the which rotated the disk associated with the mechanical counting device. Each turn of the disk corresponded to the defined by the amount of consumed by energy.
Electronic counters have a different operating principle. The semiconductor circuit elements convert the passing current of a certain voltage into a pulse signal, which the is transmitted to the in the by the counting device.
The display can be provided electromechanically - the same wheels with numerals as on the induction counter , but with rotation transmission through a stepper motor that reacts to the circuitry generated by the circuit. Another, more modern version is the electronic digital display.
It is quite clear that the multi-tariff meters can have only an electronic principle of operation and a digital indication. By the way, this limits them in the place of installation. Liquid crystal displays require the of a certain "microclimate" for correct operation, and in low-temperature or direct sunlight they can simply stop displaying information, although the meter circuit itself will regularly count the consumption. Therefore, if you plan to install a new counter in a private house, you should plan its placement exclusively inside the premises.
Accuracy class of the
counter This indicator indicates the permissible error of the instrument, expressed as a percentage. The vast majority of induction counters belonged to the class "2.5" . Electronic devices in this plan are definitely more accurate, and have "2", "1", "0.5" and even higher classes.
The accuracy class is always indicated in the technical documentation, and on the device itself - usually a pictogram in the form of a digit, enclosed by in a circle.
. Undoubtedly, the higher the accuracy class, the more expensive the instrument. And here it is important to know one subtlety, so as not to overpay when buying excess. Electricity network workers can unreasonably demand the purchase of device with overvalued indicators - "1" or even "0.5".However, at this account there is a legislative act that clearly install t _ requirements for similar devices. In Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 442 of on May 04, 2012, which regulates retail electricity markets, it is determined that for private consumers, citizens living in apartments of multi-storey buildings, private houses have an accuracy class of "2" or higher. Class "1" is required only at the entrance to a multi-apartment residential building or in case the total load capacity exceeds 670 kW, which in private housing simply does not happen.
There are more one nuance. By the same Decree( article 142) it is established that even if the student nt pr of this document in the apartment has a lower accuracy class, his replacement will be mandatory only after the expiration of the period of the inter-check interval orwhen the device fails( or its loss).
The requirements of electric grid operators to replace the counter with a more accurate one, class "1" or in the previously set period , without the desire of the owner of housing, are illegal.
Single-phase, three-phase, maximum current
Most of the city apartments and private houses are connected to a single-phase 220 V network, 50 Hz .Accordingly, and the counter should meet these parameters. However, there are also connections to a three-phase network of 380 V, for example, in apartments with stationary electric stoves or the electric heating systems provided for the construction of a particular building. This will prompt special sockets and plugs on the cables of powerful electrical appliances, which differ from the usual points of connection.
In such cases will have to select a three-phase counter .By the way, many private developers often create a kind of "energy reserve", immediately connecting their homes to a three-phase network - this greatly expands the possibilities of using household appliances and powerful power tools in the future. Many models of modern three-phase meters can be connected to work with a single-phase network,which greatly improves their universality.
For each of the counter , the values of the nominal and maximum load currents are determined. As a rule, they are designed for the maximum allowable value of up to 60 A , which roughly corresponds to a total load of 10 kW - this with a large margin is enough for almost any private housing. If counts shows that the total power consumption is higher than 10 kW, then counter with a maximum current value of 100 A should be purchased. Such devices have a direct connection principle to the network, without additional converters. If still expects a load exceeding 100 And , then it is required, in addition, to connect counter through a special device - the transformer current.
The voltage, nominal and maximum current ratings are also always indicated in the product data sheet and on its front panel.
Availability and type of communication interfaces
Further prospects for the development of power grids include the introduction of automated systems for the accounting of consumption, and in some regions is already in the experimental order of the and the practical implementation of such developments. The communication channels are set up, which first transmit to local stations, and then to a single center of readings of devices , including other sources of consumed resources( water, gas).As the feedback channels, the power lines themselves( via PLC-modem ), IP or GSM -network can be used.
In any case, it would be useful to ask the local power supply company about the planned upgrades, to , if necessary, to purchase counter with its similar function, , so that the did not have to buy another when putting such a system into operation.
modern electronic meters, in addition to separate charging, can have a number of other additional options .These include the inclusion in the memory cells of the discharge indicators by months, which is convenient, for example, when there are contradictions with energy supply organizations. In some cases, these data can be transferred to a computer. Some meters can be used to remove instantaneous indicators - the current consumed, the voltage or the active( reactive) power in a particular mo at the , thus fulfilling the function of a multimeter. The built-in "event log" can reflect peak consumption points, voltage surges or lack thereof, attempts and time of opening the device, phase changes, electromagnetic field effects and other actions.
As practice shows, most of the built-in functions for the average user remain unclaimed.
Species by type of installation
When selecting , the meter must take into account its design features regarding the method of its installation in the switchboard.
All old devices were installed using the standard screw fasteners in the of the three points of the - the top and two bottom ones. To do this, the devices themselves provided mounting holes or brackets with standardized distances between them, and on the panels - the corresponding threaded jacks or places for screwing fasteners.
boards. Some electronic meters are available in enclosures that are designed for this type of installation. This is the optimal choice of if the distribution board of the old is installed in the apartment( entrance).
provides appropriate holes for fasteners. A more modern installation of the switchboard with the is the DIN rail mounting. In this case, on the counter , there is a figured groove from the backs, with the of which it fastens the standard profile metal strip.
meter. Some models may have the option of both types of mounting. In addition, the same electronic circuit of the can the enclosed in various enclosures. For example, the rather popular two-rate counter ASE -55 is produced in by four variants, with cases from "1" to "4", which differ both externally, and dimensions, and mounting method.
In the construction of private housing or during major repairs in the apartment, the modern plastic boxes of external or built-in( with wall mounting), with mount of meter, automatic protection devices, RCD and other devices on DIN rails are increasingly preferred.
What to pay special attention to when buying counter
- First of all, the "golden" rule should work here - never and under no circumstances buy such devices from random persons, markets or obscure organizations, which do not have the appropriate state certification. What would or seem to be profitable terms of purchase, as would nor persuade salesmen and neither showed certified seals of product passports - such a deal should be strongly discarded. Moreover, one should not even consider the issue if it is proposed to purchase a device that was in use.
Perhaps the most reasonable approach to this issue will be to contact the local energy sales organization. There for certain or predlezhat to get the counter from them, or will prompt, models of what manufacturers are recommended to installation. Very often such information is posted on the official websites of companies - suppliers of electricity.
- The selected meter model, independently - domestic or imported, must be on the list of , that is, be fully certified and authorized for implementation and operation in the territory of the Russian Federation.
- certificate. When acquires , the meter must be checked for its completeness - factory package, electronic part, case with fastening elements, product data sheet with a specific factory serial number.
- The is immediately drawn to the lich, security and clarity of factory seals. In case of suspicion of their violation, another item should be taken.
- marks. When you read the counter with technical documents, you check the date of the product release, the established warranty periods and, always , the inter-check interval. In the technical form should be a mark of product quality control.
- In the operating manual of the device it is necessary to clarify the permissible operating modes of the -, this is especially important when the switchboard is to be installed in an unheated room.
- Do stand alone installation counter is not recommended - for this purpose it is better to invite a specialist with a tolerance for this kind of work. In any case, , after installing the device, it is mandatory to call the employees of the power supply company who must check the correct connection, put on , carry out their own sealing of the device, its adjustment in accordance with the current tariff policy, give the owner detailed instructions on the rules for taking readingsand on other important issues related to the operation of a particular model. is also marked with a mark in its technical form specifying the term of its next verification.
Popular models of counters with a differentiated charging
In conclusion, without pursuing any advertising goals, but only as an example - several models of meters with the function of the multi-tariff accounting , which are quite popular and deserved the positive feedback and from electricity consumers, and specialists
ESR - 55
This is the products of of the Moscow plant of electrical measuring instruments( MZEP).In the line of ESR-55, 8 models are produced, differing in both the housing design and a number of technical characteristics.
Models 50 W are designed for a maximum current consumption of 50 A and have the opportunity to a four-billing. Counters 60 W - more powerful to 60 A , and the number levels have increased to 8.
Some models( 60 W-T -415 OM and -T-W 60 213 OM ) have embedded power limiter - residual current device( RCD).At counters 60 Ш the function of instantaneous measurement of parameters of an electric network - a voltage, a current, power consumption and frequency is provided.
The accuracy class of the entire model range is "1".
The test interval of the is 16 years, and the design is 32 years old. The manufacturer's warranty obligations are 42 months.
Cases «1» and «4» are convenient for the replacement of devices with old electrical boards - their fastenings correspond to these standards. Models with "2" and "3" cases are designed for DIN-rail mounting. Weight depending on the type of housing, from 300 to 600
«Mercury - 200»
This line a Counter in in turns the three models( "02", "04" and "05"), the main difference betweenwhich are interfaces for external communication. In general, the technical characteristics are similar.
Although "Mercury - 200» - is already not new development - it more than 10 years, however, these counters enjoy great demand.
The accuracy class of the instruments is "1". Inter-test interval - 16 years. The warranty period is set 3 years, and the estimated period of use is 30 years.
Counters allow to conduct differentiated accounting 4 tariffs, and provided the opportunity to separate fixing of rates both on weekdays and by month of the year. You can make, if necessary, a built-in electronic calendar and holidays.
The counters are designed for mounting on DIN-rail, their weight is not more than 600 g.
" Power meter - CE -102"
Counted " Power meter - CE -102" -own development of the issuing of the same name of the Stavropol company.
. It supports eight-level tariffication with the storage of the readings for the last 13 months. The electronic scoreboard displays the current time and date acting at the present time t t arif, the remaining limit( if it is installed), active power, voltage and current.
The electronic circuit of the device allows to carry out the whole series of additional settings, for example, up to 32 days of exceptions( for example, holidays), the breakdown of one day to 16 tariff zones, automatic transition to "summer" time, setting the threshold of operation of the built-in RCD and others.
The meters are available for both conventional placement and DIN-rails.
The accuracy class of the instrument is "1".The average operating time of the electronic circuit for failure is 160 thousand hours. Inter-test interval - 16 years. The manufacturer accompanies the product with a solid guarantee - 5 years.
The features of the devices Energomere - CE -102 ", in addition, are an electronic seal, three communication interfaces - PLC, radio modem and RS-485, infrared for rt for i programming and data transfer, reliable systemprotection of data from unauthorized access.
The multi-tariff counters of the Neva line are also of interest. You can find out about them by reading the attached video: