Today, the owners of residential buildings and apartments are increasingly using the technology of insulation with polyurethane foam. And such a choice is the right position in the event that the thermal insulation is well-planned and well-executed. This technology has several important functions - it reduces heat loss in the room and relieves the air conditioning system on hot days. Thermal insulation with polyurethane of all building elements - a guarantee of long-term operation without the risk of deformation of walls, foundations and ceilings. And another advantage of PPU is its affordable cost. In this article, we will answer topical questions on the topic, voice the methods of seamless insulation with polyurethane foam, and also consider the advantages and disadvantages of the method.
Overview of liquid insulation polyurethane foam (PPU)
Improperly executed thermal insulation can lead to the opposite effect and harm the living space. The choice of materials also plays an important role in the insulation process. The point is that not all positions are permissible for use in certain cases. Experts' opinions on polyurethane foam insulation differ. For this reason, we will conduct an independent investigation, analyze the pros and cons of the technology and summarize the available information.
What is polyurethane foam
First, let's figure out what is polyurethane foam. One of its varieties is familiar to each of us from early childhood - this is the well-known foam rubber. It is widely used for the production of soft toys, bathing sponges and other popular devices. Immediately, we note that other types of polyurethane are used for thermal insulation of premises, but their composition is similar to the usual foam rubber.
Polyurethane foam is a porous filler that belongs to the group of gas-filled polymers. Natural ingredients are used for its production.
A characteristic feature of all polyurethanes is their gas filling, reaching 90% of the total mass. Depending on the component used for production, PU foam can be elastic or rigid.
Thermal insulation of building structures involves the use of finished parts, but liquid self-expanding formulations are more popular due to their ability to polymerize and fast solidification.
PU foam insulation is a two-component structure. It contains polyol and polyisocyanate. In the process of mixing, they enter into a chemical reaction, the result of which is the formation of a polymer polymer with the simultaneous release of carbon dioxide. This material is sold in the form of filled cylinders or barrels. The result of its application is the production of a rigid foam structure with insulated cells.
What is seamless insulation
The seamless method of PPU laying involves the creation of a sealed windproof cocoon. The two preheated components are mixed under high pressure in a special pistol. After that, the finished mixture in the form of fine dust is sprayed onto the surface, where it foams and hardens. Seamless spraying with polyurethane foam increases the effectiveness of thermal insulation and minimizes the risk of bridges for cold penetration.
Important! To achieve the declared qualities of thermal conductivity, polyol and diisocyanate must be mixed in equal proportions. Therefore, PU foam insulation is required to be trusted by qualified workers using high-class equipment.
Many sellers sell polyurethane foam with low thermal conductivity. The most common option is 0.020-0.022 W / (m × ° K), less often they sell material with characteristics of 0.017 W / (m × ° K). The porous structure of polyurethane foam provides good sound insulation and waterproofing properties. The rise of foam in comparison with the initial volume occurs in a ratio of 1:40. The vapor permeability of the material varies from 0.02 to 0.05.
Note! Even if the insulation technology has been violated, the actual thermal conductivity of the polyurethane foam does not lose its properties and deserves a high assessment.
Today, polyurethane foam insulation is the most effective way to increase the thermal insulation of a room. For this reason, this material is widely used in various industries. Let's list a few examples:
insulation of buildings with sandwich panels, as well as insulation of roofs during the construction of industrial facilities;
construction and repair of residential premises for the purpose of insulating external walls, foundations, doors, windows, attics and balconies;
thermal insulation of pipeline communications (oil pipelines, fuel oil pipelines);
cold insulation of road or railway installations for transportation;
thermal insulation of pipelines for hot and cold water supply during the initial installation or repair;
use in the furniture industry for the manufacture of foam rubber;
use in light industry for the manufacture of artificial leather.
What preparatory work is needed to start insulation with liquid polyurethane foam?
The process of preparing the insulated surface takes place in several main stages:
Cleaning from dirt and debris - it is necessary to remove plaster, old paint, stains and mold from the surface.
Dehumidification - such a measure will allow you to achieve the most tight connection of the insulation to the surface.
Protection - places that do not require thermal insulation must be covered with foil, paper towels or protected with a special lubricant.
Processing - for high-quality adhesion of the insulation to the surface, it must be treated with a special primer, and any holes and cracks must be pre-sealed with sealant or construction tape.
Test spraying of polyurethane foam - it is desirable to carry out a trial version on a similar surface. After spraying, the resulting material is recommended to be examined in detail and checked for deficiencies for timely correction.
How is liquid polyurethane foam applied to insulated structures using seamless technology?
The most common way of installing polyurethane foam is spraying. But for the production of thermal insulation structures, specialists prefer the pouring method. In this case, liquid polyurethane foam is poured into special forms, and the finished parts are used for installation after they have solidified.
On the floor
Spraying liquid polyurethane foam is possible for almost any surface. In this way, brick, concrete, wood, metal, bituminous coatings are insulated. Insulation of the concrete floor is carried out under the screed and along the logs. The preparatory process boils down to degreasing oil stains and cleaning up dirt. Then the open joints are filled with foam and bonded together.
The process of warming along the logs is more complicated - it requires dismantling the old screed, cleaning up dust and debris and obligatory marking of the passage of structures.
On the walls
After the surface of the walls is prepared and cleaned, the future frame is mounted. For these purposes, a wooden beam or a metal profile is used - the racks are placed vertically in one plane. Next, you should connect the equipment according to the instructions and apply a test layer of polyurethane foam. It is recommended to start work from hard-to-reach places.
To the ceiling
Thermal insulation of the ceiling with polyurethane foam is considered one of the most effective methods of insulation. The liquid material penetrates into hard-to-reach crevices and voids, and at the same time it can be applied in several layers. Such a coating completely repeats the surface relief and does not require finishing preparation. After one layer has set, the next one should be applied.
Attention! The thickness of each layer should not exceed 20 mm.
On the roof
Thermal insulation of the PPU roof is carried out in several stages. To begin with, the old material is removed from the surface, after which it is thoroughly cleaned. The components are mixed in the installation and applied to the roof in several layers.
The nuances of applying to different surfaces
There are several nuances that should be taken into account when insulating polyurethane foam on different surfaces:
Do not leave unprotected layers in the open sun.
Wet, damp or unprepared surfaces will result in poor material adhesion.
It is impossible to combine polyurethane foam with other cleaning agents - the surface must be protected.
It is not recommended to pour PUF in cases where the technology involves spraying.
Poor quality low pressure equipment should not be used.
What are the advantages of PU foam seamless liquid insulation?
The advantages of PPU are as follows:
excellent thermal insulation properties;
lack of seams;
good adhesion to different materials;
the ability to self-extinguish;
environmental friendliness of the material;
low moisture absorption;
the ability to apply to any geometric surface;
light weight and no load on the room.
What will the cost of such insulation depend on?
The cost of PU foam insulation will depend on the amount of foam spent. The average price per cubic meter of such a composition is approximately 10,000-12,000 rubles. This volume is usually enough for processing 20 m2, but in rooms with uneven surfaces, the consumption may increase.
Thermal insulation of polyurethane foam is an effective and available method of insulating any premises. The material is completely environmentally friendly and safe. But its main advantage is high thermal insulation properties and excellent adhesion. To obtain a good result, we recommend using high-quality materials and contacting experienced craftsmen.