Retaining wall: types of construction, landscape design, how-to instructions, videos and photos

How is a retaining wall - 2 options for self-construction

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Table of contents

  • 1 Appointment of retaining walls
    • 1.1 Components of the retaining wall
  • 2 construction technology
    • 2.1 Tools and materials for construction
    • 2.2 Option 1: pouring wall of reinforced concrete
    • 2.3 Option 2: The construction of the wall of gabions
  • 3 conclusion
When planning sites on steep slopes, without retaining walls is almost impossible to do.

When planning sites on steep slopes, without retaining walls is almost impossible to do.

Your vacation home is located in the hills or on the slopes? In this case, a retaining wall at the site will help to solve the problem of strengthening the soil, planting of garden plants and landscape zoning. I'll tell you what are the retaining walls, and will detail the manufacture of the two variants of the technology.

Appointment of retaining walls

Retaining wall - is a massive construction firm, which is installed on land with a complex terrain.

It performs several functions:

  1. It serves to hold the loose loose soil from sliding on the slopes under its own weight;
  2. Protects topsoil from weathering and erosion by rain and melt waters;
  3. It allows you to create on the slopes of straight horizontal terraces suitable for growing crops;
  4. It serves a decorative function and serves for local separation area to separate areas;
  5. Often used as a support element for gardening and landscaping garden plot.
Decorative retaining walls allow you to create original compositions of landscape design.

Decorative retaining walls allow you to create original compositions of landscape design.

Components of the retaining wall

In most cases, retaining walls work on gravity principle, that is, keep a pressure side of the land mass due to its own weight. Therefore, heavy construction materials are used for their manufacture. Structurally, the retaining wall is composed of several elements:

  1. Foundation - takes over the vertical load of the wall, and the side shearing load of the weight of crushing soil. Usually it has a belt structure and is made of concrete blocks or monolithic reinforced concrete:
  • Any retaining wall height more than 30 cm should be mounted on its own foundation;
  • In dense soils slabopuchinistyh ratio foundation depth and height of the wall should be in the range 1: 4;
  • Unstable heaving soils and this ratio should be at least 1: 3;
  • The loose and wet soil depth of laying the foundation should not be less than half the height of the aerial part. For example, for a wall foundation height 1500 mm depth is 750 mm.
foundation depth depends on the type of soil at the site.

foundation depth depends on the type of soil at the site.

  1. an array of walls large mass of soil is supported on the one hand, therefore, must withstand considerable lateral stress fracture and flexural strength. Moreover, it should be resistant to water and does not degrade the temperature drops. You can use the following materials:
  • Monolithic reinforced concrete;
  • Masonry of quarry stone or baked bricks in cement mortar;
  • Thick beams or wooden beams with large cross-section of deep antiseptic treatment;
  • Armogruntovye backups - geogrid laid in several rows between the soil layers;
  • Gabion - bulk containers of galvanized steel mesh, filled with a ballast of the largest natural stone. The main drawback of gabions - the high price.
Solid wall should have a slope towards the top soil level in the range of 5-6 degrees.

Solid wall should have a slope towards the top soil level in the range of 5-6 degrees.

  1. drainage system - designed to remove groundwater, rainwater and meltwater, which will constantly accumulate in the interior of the earth on the pressure side wall. It is organized as follows:
  • Behind a retaining wall at the bottom is placed a perforated drainage pipe with a diameter of 110 mm;
  • Poured from above the filter bed of coarse gravel and crushed stone;
  • To rubble not mixed with soil, laid therebetween geotextile layer;
  • Excess water from the soil seeps through the geotextile, it passes through the filter layer of gravel, and gravity out of the drainage pipe in the gutter.
Corrugated drainage pipe made of plastic will not be crushed under the weight of rubble.

Corrugated drainage pipe made of plastic will not be crushed under the weight of rubble.

If the retaining wall has a height of no more than 50 cm, and the water-permeable materials used for its construction, there is no need to produce a separate drainage system.

construction technology

For the manufacture of can use a variety of building materials, and in this article I'll show you how to make a retaining wall of stone and concrete.

For the manufacture of can use a variety of building materials, and in this article I'll show you how to make a retaining wall of stone and concrete.

Tools and materials for construction

To work need a set of garden and construction tools. The materials are selected depending on the type of wall:

Illustration Description of work
table_pic_att14915674806 Gardening Tools:
  1. Bayonet and shovel;
  2. Garden rake with a long handle;
  3. Baking powder ground;
  4. Rammer for soil;
  5. Construction or garden wheelbarrow.
table_pic_att14915674827 Building tools:
  1. Electric mixer;
  2. Metal buckets - 2 pcs .;
  3. Construction trowel or trowel;
  4. Sledgehammer and heavy hammer;
  5. Building cord, level and plumb;
  6. Metal tape length of 5 m and a protractor;
  7. Bulgarian discs for stone and metal.
table_pic_att14915674838 Construction Materials:
  1. Concrete M200 solution (you can buy ready-made or make yourself);
  2. Rebars 8-12 mm in diameter;
  3. Cutting boards or plywood formwork;
  4. Roofing material and geotextile rolls;
  5. Asbestos cement or plastic pipe with a diameter of 110 mm;
  6. Crushed granite 25-50 mm size;
  7. Containers for gabions made of steel galvanized mesh (as pictured);
  8. Galvanized steel coils for binding gabions;
  9. Large polished stones.

Option 1: pouring wall of reinforced concrete

Now I will discuss the construction of a retaining wall made of concrete. This is the easiest and most inexpensive way that does not require experience and practical skills. This option is considered to be the most durable, reliable and durable:

Illustration Description of work
table_pic_att14915674859 Site preparation:
  1. Before you begin, you need to mark up the slope into equal parts of width;
  2. The width of horizontal terrace must be twice smaller than the height of the vertical wall;
  3. For example, if the wall height is 1 m, the horizontal width of each portion should be not more than 2 m;
  4. The locations of the retaining wall on the slope of the land need to be broken and clean up so as to form a level surface width of about 1 m.
table_pic_att149156748510 Pouring of the foundation:
  1. On the prepared site to dig a trench width of 500-600 mm and depth as it is written in the second section;
  2. Ground at the bottom of the trench and pour compacted layer of sand and crushed stone layer of 100-150 mm total thickness;
  3. In a trench to install the formwork and reinforcement pack;
  4. Vertical reinforcement bars to go out of the formwork for the whole height of the wall;
  5. It is necessary to link it to the foundation into a coherent whole;
  6. The formwork to the required level pour concrete solution, cover with plastic wrap and leave for 1-2 weeks.
table_pic_att149156748611 Pouring wall:
  1. After solidification of the foundation over it set the formwork for the retaining wall;
  2. Vertical rebar coming out of the basement, the entire length of retaining structures to tie horizontal reinforcing bars;
  3. Pour concrete formwork Inside solution and sealed it with the vibrator;
  4. Remove the formwork can be no earlier than a week, and to carry out further work in three weeks.
table_pic_att149156748912 Installation drainage system Instructions:
  1. From the very beginning of the foundation on the ground lay geotextile fabric;
  2. Pour bottom layer of gravel 100 mm;
  3. It lay drainage pipe with the holes in the upper half;
  4. The pipe should lie with a slight slope along the entire length;
  5. The upper end of the pipe must muffle and the lower end to bring the gutter;
  6. After solidification of the concrete to fill up to the level of gravel layer of topsoil;
  7. Geotextile wrap so that the backfill is not in contact with the gravel.
table_pic_att149156749513 Decorative trim.

To concrete retaining wall has got finished appearance, its veneer finishing materials for external works:

  1. Flat polished natural stone;
  2. Decorative facing brick;
  3. Stoneware or clinker tiles.

Option 2: The construction of the wall of gabions

Stone retaining walls are beautiful natural appearance and does not require additional finishing. The walls of the stone easier to do in the form of gabion:

Illustration Description of work
table_pic_att149156750114 Substrate Preparation:
  1. Dig a trench in the ground 600 mm depth and a width of 600-800 mm;
  2. At the bottom pour a layer of sand and a layer of compacted crushed stone;
  3. In the sand lay perforated drain pipe.
  4. The upper platform to align at a slight incline towards the ground buttressed.
table_pic_att149156750615 Installation of gabion:
  1. On the basis of set a lower number of gabion lattices
  2. Associate them with each other coil of galvanized steel wire.
  3. Each grid fill layers of natural stone;
  4. After several layers of lattice contracted couple the sidewalls of galvanized wire;
  5. Set on top of the lid and fasten them with a wire helix.
table_pic_att149156750716, Tiered retaining wall:
  1. Gabions retaining wall can be assembled from several rows meshes with stones;
  2. They must be set on each other vertically, and also to seal between a helix.

conclusion

You have seen that the retaining wall is being built with his own hands rather quickly and easily. I advise you to watch the video in this article, and all your suggestions and questions leave me in the comments.