Lighting in the bathroom: the regulatory requirements, advice on the choice of fixtures and their placement
Table of contents
- 1 And he thinks fellow SNIP
- 2 Light and darkness in the designer's hands
- 3 Scattered and area lighting
4 Sources of light
- 4.1 fault tolerance
- 4.2 economy
- 4.3 Color reproduction
- 4.4 small text
- 5 conclusion
Greetings, comrades! Today I want to talk about how to better arrange the lighting in the bathroom. We have to meet with existing regulations affecting the luminance standards and wiring, to discuss the choice of fixtures and their placement.
Combined lighting spacious combined bathroom: built-in LED panel ceiling and walls combined with wall lights.
And he thinks fellow SNIP
Let's start with the regulations: they should be the main source of information on how to mount the wiring all the power and lighting systems in particular.
source of information for us will be two sets of rules and regulations:
- SNIP 23-05-95 It provides illumination standards for different areas;
- SNiP 31-110-2003 It is dedicated to the installation of electrical equipment in residential buildings.
For the convenience of the reader I reduce actual for us the requirements of both documents in the general list.
- The minimum luminance value bathroom and shared bathrooms - Luke 50;
FAQ: one suite corresponds to the total luminosity of the light sources involved in one lumen per square meter. When a small area in the bath 3 square meters luminosity of the light sources should not be less than 150 lumens, which roughly corresponds features 15-watt bulb.
The illumination of one lux luminosity corresponds to the lumen per square meter of surface.
- Wiring in the bathroom and the bathroom It must be hidden. Use of metal wires in a protective sheath and a wiring laying steel pipe unacceptable;
- transfer boxes lighting systems must be located outside the bathroom;
- The length of passing through wires humid power lamps should be minimal. In order to reduce their length to mount lamps as close to the wall, which is made for distributing power;
- Metal fixtures housing They must be grounded.
Light and darkness in the designer's hands
Light along with flowers decoration is a favorite designer tool. With the help of lighting, you can adjust the apparent size has a non-optimal proportion, or just a small bathroom.
|Brightly illuminated ceiling at a dim light of the walls make the bathroom above.|
|illumination of walls with a dark ceiling will correct the situation in a high and a small bathroom area stalinki room.|
|Bright general lighting small bathroom will make it seem more spacious. Auxiliary tool is design space - bright finish and plenty of mirrors.|
Scattered and area lighting
In my opinion, bathroom lighting should be combined:
- general lighting provide several spotlights, evenly spaced across the ceiling;
Basic lighting is provided by small lights in the ceiling.
- The mirror above the sink has its own illumination.
Light in the bathroom above the mirror.
What's wrong with the usual Soviet-built apartments on the circuit with a single lamp over the door?
If you let the beard in the style of Gandalf - nothing. But for a lovely family and have used half of the men shave, such a scheme is inconvenient abundance of shadows. They are equally interfere and shaving and when applying makeup.
Additional sources of embedded lights can be equipped with:
- Ceiling shower. Light it easier Some hygiene procedures;
Light in the ceiling shower.
- Lockers and cabinets. Highlighting allows you minimal time to find the right detergent or shampoo.
Sources of light
Lighting for the bathroom can be arranged with different light sources:
|incandescent lamp - a glass bulb with a tungsten helix.|
|halogen lamp. It differs from the previous in that the bulb is filled with iodine vapor or bromine. Halo prevents the evaporation of a spiral and can increase its operating temperature.|
|fluorescent Light glows through a glow discharge in the bulb with mercury vapor.|
|LED lights They represent many thin (not more than 0.5 Watt) LEDs on a common circuit board or a flexible tape.|
What features are important when choosing a light source?
Three of them:
- fault tolerance. The luminaire must carry a good characteristic for bathroom high humidity;
- economy. Light in the bathroom should not consume a lot of electricity. The rising price of kilowatt-hours, willy-nilly forces to pay attention to its consumption;
- Accurate color reproduction (Ie the maximum range of the proximity lighting to daylight sunlight). This is important, again, for a great part of the family: when applying makeup unnatural lighting puts select the desired tone.
Proceed to a comparison.
everything is simple here:
- Incandescent and galogenki - the undisputed leader. They lack moisture-sensitive electronics, a sealed flask dampness not terrible;
The design of the incandescent lamp is not sensitive to damp items.
- Fluorescent and LED lighting supplied driver - power converter. A driver working in the damp flatly refuses.
However, sensitive to moisture lamps may work fine in luminaires by IP 67: a sealed housing completely exclude ingress of moisture into steam.
Lamp with a sealed enclosure allows you to use the bathroom all lamps in a humid atmosphere.
Now compare the different light sources of light output per watt.
- LED lightening It leads to the result of 90-100 lm / W;
We luminosity LED strip can be even higher - up to 120 lumens per watt. However, the loss of electricity contributes to the power converter, imposed at the low-voltage feeds into a separate PSU. In lamps and luminaires substantial losses in the disposed in the housing or the lamp cap driver.
- Fluorescent lamps give 55-80 lumens per watt;
- for galogenok typical luminosity at 15-16 lm / W;
- Result bulbs - 10-14 lm / W - making them the most unfavorable light source.
Comparison of costs in the operation of different lamps.
Precision matching daytime solar spectrum is characterized by a color rendering index (CRI), taking values in the range 0-100. The higher the CRI, the more accurate the displayed color.
Here are the typical color rendering index values for different light sources:
- halogen light — 100;
- incandescent lamp — 90-95;
- fluorescent lamp — 70-90;
- LED lamp — 50-85.
Why LEDs provide illumination so unnatural? Yes, because they emit light in a very narrow spectral band, while the daytime sunlight covers a much wider spectrum.
This feature of LEDs is offset by the application of their casing phosphor that changes the spectral composition of light; color accuracy is determined by the quality of the phosphor.
Couple subtleties associated with color in LED lighting:
- CRI index is maximum at the lights on the LED strands (75-85);
In the photo - LED lamp filaments (filament).
- The closest match provides daylight color temperature of 4000 K. The lamp Warm light (2700 K) gives a bias yellowness and cold (6500 K), the color shifts towards the blue.
Color temperature scale.
In the bathroom with a stretch ceiling PVC film must take into account not only the above settings, but also power the lamp (and thus its heat dissipation).
Here are instructions for the selection of power embedded in the ceiling fixtures:
- Incandescent lamps - no more than 60 W;
- halogen lamps - no more than 40 watts.
Galogenki cut rights compared to conventional light bulbs Ilicha due to higher temperature and spiral flask.
The power of fluorescent lamps and LED are not limited as long as their temperature is enclosure artificially limited manufacturers by increasing the area of the heat sink (e.g., fins on LED lamps). The fact that the driver overheating drastically reduces its lifetime: electrolytic capacitors in it at high temperatures, swell and lose capacity.
Fins on the lamp housing provides an effective heat sink.
I hope that familiarity with the species and the characteristics of lighting fittings dear reader will be used to illuminate your bathroom properly. As always, additional materials can be studied by looking at the video in this article. Waiting for your comments to it. Good luck, comrades!