How to choose the air conditioning for the apartment: 7 Steps to a successful purchase
Table of contents
- 1.1 Principle of operation
- 1.2 general characteristics
1.3 Form Factor
- 1.3.1 Window
- 1.3.2 Mobile
- 1.3.3 Split
- 1.4 Start-stop and the inverter
- 1.5 Multi-split system
2 for buying
- 2.1 Step 1: Choose the form factor
- 2.2 Step 2: Decide on the mode of operation
- 2.3 Step 3: Select output
- 2.4 Step 4: Pay attention to economy
- 2.5 Step 5: Learn about advanced features
- 2.6 Step 6: Look to the noise level
- 2.7 Step 7: Select manufacturer
- 3 conclusion
Greetings, comrades! Today I will talk about how to choose the air conditioner for an apartment. To my surprise, no one read my article on climate engineering does not explain what features air conditioning indicate its actual performance and economy. I decided to remedy the situation and to write such an article itself.
External power one of the five split-systems installed in my home.
Principle of operation
We begin with the principle of operation of any of the heat pump. Air Conditioning belongs to this category of devices as intended for transportation of thermal energy between the street and the house.
Full work cycle consists of four steps:
- Compressing the refrigerant compressor. It is accompanied by heating of the refrigerant at several tens of degrees;
- Cooling of the condenser (One of the heat exchangers) where freon gives excess heat and goes into a liquid state of aggregation;
- Passage of the expansion valve. It refrigerant pressure drops sharply, and it evaporates. The process is accompanied by rapid cooling;
- The heating of the evaporator - a second heat exchanger air conditioner. Cold refrigerant takes energy from warm by comparison environment.
air-conditioning device. The arrows indicate the movement of refrigerant and air streams.
Cheap mobile air conditioning can not change the direction of refrigerant and work only on cooling, taking away heat from the indoor air and transporting it to the streets. Virtually all modern window air conditioners and split systems are capable of working and cooling, and heating.
Regardless of the form factor and conditioning products have several common features:
- Air conditioner does not produce cold or heat. He only transports it from the evaporator to the condenser;
The heat is not produced and does not disappear. It is only pumped from one point in space to another.
Installed indoors window air conditioner will not cool the air. Taking into account the heat generated by the compressor it will warm him.
- Effective thermal capacity of the device over its electric power. Simply stated, for every kilowatt-hour of electricity expended pumping it into the room or from the several kilowatt hours of heat;
- Freon is volatile and inevitably evaporates through the smallest gaps in the joints of highways and heat exchangers. Sooner or later, the air conditioner requires refilling. This is not a defect of the device - only its structural feature.
Sooner or later, any air conditioner freon refill is required.
What can be the layout of the air conditioner?
Bar with an evaporator and condenser in a single housing. Put in the window, the window or opening in the outer wall. The condensate is collected at the evaporator is discharged outside.
Window Unit monoblock: evaporator, condenser, compressor and fans ventilated heat exchangers housed in the same housing.
- Extremely easy setup with your hands: the device you need to put into the opening and plug it in;
- Ability to dismantle without damaging the main walls.
The window unit is installed instead of the removed plastic window sash. Its dismantling and installation of shutters occupy no more than ten minutes.
- High noise level (at least 40-45 dB);
- Low energy efficiency (heat rate per kilowatt of energy);
- Reduction of ambient light;
- The need to remove the unit for the winter.
Price: At the beginning of 2017 - from 8000 rubles.
This is also a candy bar, but it works differently. Air is blown through the condenser fan and is discharged to outside of the corrugated plastic tube about 100 mm in diameter.
Mobile air-conditioning: a candy bar with a tap of the exhaust air outside the building.
Going on the evaporator condensate can be disposed in one of two ways:
- He's going into the tank, which has to be emptied every 2-4 hours;
container filling detector to the condensate - the usual push button switch with a spring. Once the container weight overcomes the spring elasticity, the compressor is deactivated.
The plug to drain condensate from the collecting mobile air conditioner capacity.
- It evaporates blown air flow through the condenser and carried out.
- Possibility of transportation. Mobile air conditioner - a good option for a rented apartment or villa;
- Easy installation. It is only necessary to withdraw the air hose onto the street and turn the unit into an electrical outlet;
Sealed conclusion corrugations on the street. One of the double glazing windows replaced with plastic insert from the laminated plastic polystyrene.
- A small hole for discharging hot air. If desired, the corrugation can be connected even to the air ducts.
- High noise level (compressor and condenser fan blows the warm air located in the premises);
- Low energy efficiency;
- Younger models - work only on cooling. The heating mode is missing or implemented conventional heater with far lower as compared with compressor energy efficiency;
The device operates in the cooling mode, dehumidification and ventilation. Heating is not provided.
- Air flow from an air conditioned room. Compensating its hot air inflow from the street further reduces the efficiency of air-conditioning;
- The need for removal of hot air out of the room;
- For models with a capacity of condensate - the need to periodically emptying the container to the drain.
Price: From 12,000 rubles.
Heat exchangers are separated into two blocks - internal and external. The indoor unit has only a heat exchanger, a fan and the control circuit; external, except the heat exchanger is a compressor. The blocks are connected to the copper pipe and the refrigerant supply wire.
The most noisy components - compressor and fan to blow the external heat exchanger placed outside the home.
- Minimum noise level. Its source is in the room only a fan;
- High energy efficiency.
- The need for fixed installation;
- Complicated maintenance outdoor unit on the upper floors. The heat exchanger has to be periodically cleaned from dust, which prevents heat dissipation. Poplar fluff - separate song: June when it flies off the trees, the external radiator block is covered with a coat thickness and density of the felt in centimeter.
the outdoor unit heat exchanger is clogged with dust and requires periodic cleaning.
Price: From 12,000 rubles.
Start-stop and the inverter
All cheap conditioning compressor is started when the temperature sensor readings differing from the predetermined temperature. Once the air warmed or cooled to a predetermined value, compressor and fans stop.
This scheme has several serious disadvantages:
- High mechanical loads on the compressor and the fan impellers at startup;
- Large starting currentsReducing electronic resource in the food chain;
- Noise. Compressor and fan run at full speed, which somehow does not contribute to a strong and healthy sleep;
- Inability heating operation under low outdoor temperature. The cold oil in the compressor becomes viscous. During cold starts, the compressor can be burned because of an excessively large load.
Inverter air conditioner rid of these shortcomings, due to different modes of operation: thanks to a double power conversion (AC to DC inversely with frequency modulation) it can reduce the power consumption of the compressor by adjusting its current demand for heat output instrument.
Operating the compressor at a constant rate allows the inverter to maintain a predetermined temperature with maximum accuracy.
A side effect of the inverter compressor supply became increase energy efficiency: inverter with the same thermal power consume one-third less energy, saving you money. The lower limit of the outside temperature when working on the heating down and moved up from the best models of -25 ° C.
The absolute majority of the inverters is made in the form factor of split systems. inverters are very rare among the window units, but they are not among the mobile air conditioners from the word "very."
Inverter air conditioner is better than "start-stop" system, in all respects, except for the cost. Two devices with the same thermal capacity and functionality, produced in one plant, will vary in price in half times.
So it called kit of one outdoor unit and multiple indoor. The temperature in several rooms with the indoor units can be controlled independently. Limitation of one thing: the air conditioner operation mode (cooling, heating, ventilation or drainage) - common for all.
Multi-split system, one outdoor unit and two controlled independently internal.
So on what grounds, you can choose the air conditioner in the apartment?
Step 1: Choose the form factor
Window air conditioner is best if:
- You are not willing to spend on the purchase of a large amount;
- In your window pane has a suitable size, or you are willing to alter the frame for the installation of the device.
Easy completion and opening of the frame allowed to install window air conditioner in the window.
Mobile air conditioner - the smart choice for rental housing or dormitories. It is easy to transport and can be installed in any room.
For fixed installation in his apartment the choice is clear - a split-system.
Step 2: Decide on the mode of operation
If you plan to use the device only for air conditioning during peak summer heat, you You can look at the low-cost "start-stop" split systems and window air conditioners without mode heating.
In practice, the heating mode is very useful in the off-season and cool summer days. I already wrote that the air conditioner several times more economical than any heater.
For continuous operation for cooling during the summer and when used as an air conditioner The heater in the winter (and then, and more is practiced in warm regions of the country) to buy an inverter split system. Due to its efficiency your purchase will pay for itself within two to three seasons.
In Crimea, with its warm climate, inverter air conditioner is used for heating of stores and shopping malls.
Step 3: Select output
How to choose the thermal power conditioner?
It needs to be specified in an unconvincing British thermal units (BTU). One BTU - this is the amount of heat that can raise the temperature of one pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit.
Typically, the heat output in BTU is tied directly to the area of the premises:
- 7000 BTU corresponds to an area of 20 m2;
- 9000 BTU - 25 m2;
- 12000 - 35 m2;
- 18000 - 50 m2;
- 24000 - 60 m2.
Performance air conditioner in the cooling mode, and its compliance with the parameters of the room.
When the cooling operation at these numbers, you can navigate, but when you use the air conditioner as a heater - it is impossible.
The fact that the room heat demand of many factors in addition to the area:
- Ceiling height;
- Quality thermal insulation of walls;
- The outside temperature;
- The size and structure of the glass windows.
Suppose that the Thermal calculation gave us a heating capacity of 3.5 kW. How to choose the appropriate apartment for her needs warm air conditioner?
- Manufacturers often indicate the actual power to heat and cool modes in the indoor unit housing;
- 1 kilowatt of heat power corresponds to 3400 BTU. 3.5 kW correspond to 3.5 * 3400 = 11900 BTU (taking into account the actual power line - 12000).
Table allows you to choose the air conditioner based on the height of the ceiling of the room.
There inverter air conditioners heat output value is not constant, but varies depending on the mode of operation of the compressor. The technical documentation is always specified power rating, but the minimum and maximum values are often not publicized.
Step 4: Pay attention to economy
On the device indicate the energy efficiency of three parameters:
- Actually efficiency class (scale from G to A);
Class energy efficiency and other characteristics of a split system can be found in the marking of the external unit.
- EER (Energy Efficiency Ratio) - heat capacity ratio in the cooling mode to the consumed electric;
- COP (Coefficient of Performance) - the same attitude, but for the heating mode.
COP and EER values always differ: COP slightly higher. The fact that a significant amount of heat during operation of the compressor, is absorbed by the refrigerant.
Energy efficiency class allows you to weed out the least efficient appliances. However, in high-class A combine all air conditioners with EER above 3.2 and above 3.6 COP.
Air Conditioning refers to the A-class energy efficiency, however, it is far from having the best parameters by modern standards. EER 3,25 - a little to the inverter.
In class A get the best models of "start-stop" air conditioners and almost all modern inverters. At best inverters COP reaches 4,9-5,2, EER - 4,2-4,5.
If these parameters are specified in the documentation, you can calculate yourself. Instruction is ridiculously simple: divide the nominal thermal power conditioning system in the appropriate mode of its electric power.
The values of power consumption and heat output are usually marked on the outside of a split system unit.
Actual values of EER and COP vary depending on the temperature difference between the air conditioner heat exchangers. In the cold and at high temperature in the room when using a split system for heating COP can fall from the nominal 4.2 to 2.2. At high outdoor temperature, and 16 in the flat EER also fall into a few times the nominal value.
Step 5: Learn about advanced features
On the air conditioner choices for the apartment is often affected by the secondary set of device functions. Pay special attention should be on these options:
- plasma filter. This is a really useful thing: cold plasma quickly removes air from odors and dust;
Air filtration filter with cold plasma. They are neutralized odors and small particles of dust trapped.
- Timer. Programming of switching on and off the air conditioner is advantageous in terms of energy savings;
I set the timer when the air conditioner for heating so that it warmed the air to wake-up time. In the evening, it will shut down shortly before the curfew.
- flap control (At least their mobility in the vertical plane). Continuous mixing of air in the room movable shutters can achieve its uniform heating and cooling.
Step 6: Look to the noise level
For indoor unit norm - 30 dB or less. Most air conditioners does not make noise louder than 19 dB.
SPL (Sound Pressure Level) - 25 dB. For comparison, the background noise in a quiet room has a volume of 40 dB.
A reasonable maximum noise ODU - 45 dB. In larger volume of his work will be heard through the closed windows.
Step 7: Select manufacturer
The last stage - the choice of the manufacturer.
The debate about what kind of air conditioner choose, are conducted in thematic forums for decades. Tables in the network ratings - a dime a dozen. I will not bore you with abstract reasoning and simply share your own experience of operation of split systems.
|Picture||Manufacturer and comments|
LG: Middling. It does not shine nor the efficiency or functionality: from the best inverters COP no higher than 4 at the minimum operating temperature of -5 degrees.
But LG split systems boast reliability: I never faced with the breakdown of one of them.
Carrier: Reliable, functional, uneconomical. Bought in 2016 for the nursery inverter pleased wealth of modes and settings disappointed by low values of COP and EER (3,6 and 3,25 respectively).
In addition, the air conditioner does not turn on after a power failure. All modern split-system after a power outage are able to return to the last mode of operation.
|De Longhi: Neat conditioners, for some reason, have not been assessed appreciated the Russian market. With the average functionality and efficiency of these devices, according to my personal statistics, seldom fail.|
Midea: One more representative of the average level. The air conditioners Midea attractive primarily low cost and efficiency (from the single installed in my house "start-stop» COP conditioner is not inferior to low-cost inverters and is 3,61).
The shortcomings I'd recorded uncomfortable and bulky console with vague designations of button functions.
Samsung: The characteristics - above average, the quality of execution - a fierce horror. Both acquired two years ago (your humble servant and his neighbors), air conditioning out of order, one in the guarantee period, the other - immediately after its completion.
Not only that: the body of the indoor unit and changed the color of the white of the first year turned into yellow. I do not recommend.
Gree and manufactured in the factories of the company under a different brand devices - Tosot, Cooper & Hunter. Rating: excellent.
Cheap air conditioners (at the time of purchase in the 2012-2013 power inverters 9-12 million BTU has cost 20-24 thousand rubles) please no damage and high energy efficiency (COP 4,2-4,95).
The indoor units in the automatic adjustment mode the fan speed is practically noiseless. The filters can be easily removed for cleaning.
The total length of continuous (I emphasize: the clock and year-round) work of senior Air Conditioning - 4 years.
air conditioning in the summer in my home work on cooling: in Sevastopol, where I live, keeps the temperature in the 30 and above from June to August. In winter, they are also responsible for home heating.
I hope that I was able to answer all the questions dear reader. Additional materials you, as always, find the video in this article. Waiting for your additions to it. Good luck, comrades!