Repair farmhouse: update the roof with his hands
Table of contents
- 1 types of roofs
- 2 roofing elements
3 Rafters and their importance
- 3.1 Determination of bias
- 3.2 Types of rafters location
- 4 attic
- 5 Summing up
If you have a house in the village, which is in need of repair, do not rush to put him on the cross. We will talk about how to transform the old building, giving it a modern look, as well as give the home comfort and practicality. Why repair begins? Of course, from the roof. It is with this issue and we'll start.
types of roofs
First of all, the roof - a single structure, assembled from a plurality of elements, which include the roof, lathing and farms. They can have a variety of forms, but all of them are subject to the basic rules that are inviolable observed in the performance of all necessary works.
Basic types (Figure 1)
- and - pent;
- b - Gable;
- in - hipped;
- r - poluvalmovaya;
- d, e - hipped;
- s, w - a complex, mnogoskatnaya;
- and - unequal, gable;
- to - bulbospongiosus-Dome;
- l - poluvalmovaya complicated;
- m - hipped (tent);
- N - vosmiskatnaya;
- about - Groin;
- n - trehskatnaya;
- p - "cap" hipped;
- with - drum Groin;
Explanation of the elements in Figure 1:
- little room.
Picture 1. types of roofs
Figure 2. constituent elements
But the types listed above do not represent the whole variety of options. Designs have mass elements which complement and transform them. To carry out the repair of the old country house, you need to have a certain notion about them, see. Figure 2.
- oblique edge;
- front overhang;
For rural and other small private houses repaired is usually used design mansard or gabled. Materials for roofing can be any, depending on the financial status.
Traditionally, the use of slate or tile. However, keep in mind that applying for the repair of private house tile roof, rafters need to be strengthened so that they are able to withstand the weight of the structure. Sometimes they use roofing steel, but it is good for complex configurations.
Rafters and their importance
If the one-story building, the carrier serves as a middle wall of a private house repaired. In this case, it is recommended to use the sloping rafters, whose one end is located on the outer wall, and the other - at the front middle of the wall.
It is recommended when the rafters use nails, and when attaching them to the wall - bracket.
If the walls of the house is not made of wood, fixing is carried out under the scheme:
- Metal spike driven into the wall at home.
- Rafters secured thereto by means of a wire stranding.
- The ends feature on a bar, located along the wall.
- Be sure to make a gap, called the fire.
Rafters must withstand a load of constant and of course - the time. It relates constant weight rafters themselves, and by the time - the mass of snow and wind gusts. Snow load is calculated and is equal to 180 kg per square meter.
Determination of bias
Since the upper and lower belt structure is ready not withstand heavy roof, farm further strengthen internal backups. Farms need to create bias, which is subject to certain criteria and factors.
- Precipitation and their number. In heavy rain tapering angle should be no less than 45 °.
- wind load.
- Look of the roof. When using rolled materials angle should be within 5-25 °, piece - more than 22 °, for tiles - of 25 ° or higher;
Note! The higher the slope, the more materials for the roof is necessary.
If you decide to make repairs country house with their own hands and started it from the roof, it must be remembered that the farm has hanging rafters, and therefore, two points to support. In this case, the farm work in two directions - bending and compression. With this structure, the action of the horizontal bursting load is distributed on the wall.
We advise to pay attention to the section. If it is not enough, you can insert the addition of a grid that will greatly enhance the rigidity of the structure.
Types of rafters location
Figure 3 shows the layout of trusses.
Figure 3. layout rafters
- single puff;
- the outer wall;
The section itself can be determined by the span width, and a step slope roof. Normally trusses step should not exceed 120 cm. Data on the cross section shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Selecting the section rafters
Experts point out that the installation of the rafters and the slope is very important for the design of the roof. As the supports may act as the wall of the house exterior and interior. Installing trusses scheme is shown in Figure 4.
Figure 4. sloping rafters
- the outer wall;
- an inner wall;
- roofing sheets.
The distance that must be left between the rafter, m is 1, the roof slope should be greater than 45 °. If the house is located in areas where snow falls and often abundantly, the distances between the rafters is reduced to 0.6 m. All variations of distances between the rafters are shown in Table №2.
Table 2. Clearance between the rafters
On top of the rafters themselves stacked structure runs, which are used to manufacture logs with a large cross section. They then become the basis of the ridge.
To increase the living space is often erected attic, representing an additional floor instead of the attic. Figure 5 shows different embodiments of attics.
Figure 5. attic
- a, b - single-level penthouse with a gable roof;
- in - one-level penthouse with sloping ceilings;
- g - one level loft with remote console;
- d - a two-level penthouse with a displaced spine bearing.
The very idea of using the attic as a living space was born in France in the 17th century. For attic used farm specific design. The main feature - the presence of intermediate floors. This is due to the lower belt belonging to the base of the floor to the attic.
Experts advise to use for the construction of the attic design, cast in Figure 6.
Figure 6. dormer design
- triangular truss;
- brace strut;
- brace frame;
- the outer wall;
- an inner wall;
Thus, repair of a private house with his own hands the roof - a complex event that requires the knowledge, which we have tried to give you. If you look at the construction of the roof, do it properly and in accordance with their own preferences, the house is immediately transformed and will gain a new life.
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