How to prepare a solution for plaster: binders, fillers and additives
Table of contents
- 1.1 building lime
- 1.2 building plaster
- 1.3 Cement
- 1.4 Clay
- 2 fillers
- 3 Preparation of plaster solutions
- 4 A little about supplements
- 5 Total
Plastering - the most common type of construction and finishing works. In order to make the solution must binder and fillers - slag sand. In this article we will talk about how to prepare a solution for plaster.
As the binder used lime, plaster, cement and clay.
Building lime hardens only on air. Depending on the degree of preparedness it can be calcium oxide - "quicklime", milled and hydrated - "pushonka".
For solutions used only repaid lime. The fact that all solutions shut water, which reacts with the quicklime and starts the process of spontaneous extinguishing.
As a result, remain outstanding fine particles that will subsequently react with moisture in the air, plaster will then swell, forming discontinuities.
Slaking quicklime to use a special container - a barrel or box.
- Bystrogasyaschayasya (8 min.) Lime is poured into a water tank. When there is steam, add more water and carefully mix all.
- Srednegasyaschayasya lime (up to 25 min.) Is poured into the vessel at ¼ and half filled with water to the tank. When the pair of quicklime mixed and topped water.
- Medlennogasyaschayasya (25 min.) Lime is poured into a box / barrel and moistened with water only.
Under its influence, the pieces of material are beginning to crumble, and its volume increases up to three times. lime temperature rises and it "boils".
In the photo pit for slaking
by preparing their own hands Instructions:
After cracks appeared in small portions add water and mix well. As a result, all the hard inclusion will settle to the bottom of the container.
After pre-quench all types of lime is diluted with water to a consistency of lime milk, it is filtered sieve and drained into a special pit. After one day, sieved sand is poured on top, and on it total land layer to 0.5 m.
In the pit, quicklime is maintained not less than 15-20 days. During this time, the lime completely extinguished, and milk is transformed into a dough having a creamy consistency.
Before you make the solution for plaster, milk bucket typed from a hole in the required quantities.
Building plaster is often used in plastering as an additive to a solution of lime plaster. It accelerates the setting and increases the strength of the mixture. When mixed with water the plaster starts to set in 4 minutes, and half an hour to solidify completely. This is only one of the binders, which does not give a significant shrinkage. It can be used in pure form.
Cement - this is the most durable binder. The higher the grade, the stronger cement. Under the solutions most often used M400. Solidified material both in air and in water. Fasten it begins no earlier than 15 minutes, the process ends no later than 12 hours after mixing with water. Hardens and gains strength completely for 28 days.
Clay is also a binder. It is used for plastering the walls of adobe and wood and stoves.
The composition for plaster solution necessarily includes various fillers.
The most common - it's different kinds of sand. The highest quality of them is river quartz sand. Mountain and ravine filler is often mixed with clay, but in many sea salts.
In krupnofrkatsionnom sand grain size of 2-4 mm, srednefraktsionnom - 0.5-2 mm, in small - 0.25-0.5 mm. For plastering most commonly used medium-sized, less coarse sand. Small taken only for the finish coat.
Sand under clean solution must be chosen without land, mud and other impurities. Before operation it is sieved through a sieve having a mesh of 3-4 mm. If you need large quantity of plaster mixture used inclined screen. It throws sand shovel. If a small amount of work - use pans for sieve.
Preparation of plaster solutions
Soak the clay
The solutions are simple - lime, cement, clay and complex - lime-plaster, cement-lime, lime, clay, etc. Making solution, aiming to achieve the optimum proportions of the binder and excipients. Such mixtures are called normal.
If an excess of binder solution, it relates to a fat, with solidification of the plaster it shrinks and cracks. When excess filler called lean solution, it has insufficient strength. Fat blends may be determined by its stirring.
If it does not stick to the shovel, the composition of the solution for plaster walls thin. Normal mixture adheres only slightly oily - stick hard.
In the manufacture of mortar is added to the dough slightly quartz sand and water, are mixed thoroughly. The sand is added in small portions to give a mixture with normal fat content.
Lime has properties like a binder, and a plasticizer therefore well grasped and stone / wood and brick walls. Please be aware that the lime mixture hardens slowly.
She practically plastered exterior walls. Because of this poor water-resistance, the composition is used only for internal works. In addition, the lime plaster unstable and collapses under mechanical stress. Such characteristics have a positive side, for example, does not cause difficulties the question of how to remove the old plaster of lime mortar. in most cases the coating was removed by hand.
To speed up the hardening of lime mortar, gypsum is added to it.
In the container water is poured in a thin stream it poured gypsum and thoroughly stirred to form slurry. It lime paste is added and the whole was stirred to obtain a homogeneous mixture.
Works cement-lime plaster (the price - from 400 rubles).
Note! It is important that the whole operation took no more than 2 minutes, as the solution starts to set in 5 minutes and cures in half an hour. Therefore, to prepare lime-plaster mixture should be in small portions.
When the mortar is added a little cement, the resulting mixture becomes a much stronger and more water resistant.
For the preparation of Portland cement mixed with sand in the dry state. The dry weight is poured divorced until the consistency of jelly lime putty and all is well mixed. Plaster of lime-cement mixture gaining intermediate strength after 2-3 days.
Lime-clay mixture is very plastic. Slaked lime is mixed with a pre-soaked clay, quartz sand and added water. Use mixture should be within 2 hours.
If made plaster walls with their hands under the tile in the building or get off the wall from the outside, you need a solution on the basis of sand and cement. In this case, the cement need is much greater than in complex mixtures Its amount can be reduced as a plasticizer used clay.
Prepare the mortar is easy. The main thing to calculate the consumption of cement in the plaster. The binder and filler are mixed in dry form, then the mixture is added water in an amount necessary to obtain a consistency suitable for use.
The best proportion for plasters cement-based 1: 3 or 1: 4. At a ratio of 1: 2 weight gives a very strong, but has a low ductility and often departs from the wall surface.
Clay mixture made of clay and sand. The clay is soaked for several hours in advance, water is added, with stirring turned to a creamy consistency. Thereupon pour sand, stirring the mixture is brought to the operating state.
A little about supplements
Gypsum does not have sufficient moisture resistance, so it is added only when needed Food masses with high setting rate (plastering inside residential not wet premises).
The setting time of building plaster in complex mixtures with a high content of it can be made longer by adding 2-5% of the diluted wood glue.
For the walls outside the building, in damp spaces, as well as plaster of slopes necessary to use mortar with addition of a latex adhesive.
Before dissolve the plaster in the mixture must be poured glue, up to 20% of the cement.
Once the basic plaster sufficiently cured, it can wipe out. To this mixture was prepared skim small fraction with the sand. The amount of sand must be less than 3 times higher than in the primer.
Smoothing solution is applied on the cement after hardening soil mixture containing gypsum - a little later, after the main plaster work, without waiting for its complete curing. Smoothing mixture with a latex adhesive is applied one hour after the laying ground.
Before working on the last layer of finishing the wall surface should be moistened with water by means of carbon brushes. Preparation of a mixture of plaster in the final stage is done without the use of sand.
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