Solar panels: the principle of the work of panels, efficiency and device, types for the home, how the silicon acts, from what do

Solar cells are indispensable where there is frequent power failure Solar cells are indispensable where there is frequent power outage It is often enough for those who live in their own home to encounter the fact that they cut off electricity for technical reasons or because of an emergency. Such problems bring not only discomfort, but also a lot of problems, for example, products spoil, it is impossible to engage in work if this requires the use of electrical appliances. What to do in this situation?It is worth installing solar panels that allow you to solve this problem as quickly as possible and will be able to deliver only the benefit and nothing more.

    • What is a solar battery
    • How does an individual solar battery work
    • How maintenance is performed to operate a solar battery
    • Solar efficiency and other parameters
    • Types of solar panels
    • What is mainlyMake solar panels
    • Solar device and design nuances
    • Efficiency of solar panel
    • How the solar battery works( video)

What is a solar battery

A solar battery( or panel) is a power element( called a photographic plate) that changes its conductivity and releases energy when exposed to sunlight. It is this transformation that will enrich the residential structure with the necessary electricity. As a rule, solar panels have different types.

Solar batteries come in several types Solar batteries are available in several types

The following designs are on sale:

  • Single-crystal;
  • Polycrystalline;
  • Amorphous.

Each design has a certain performance, which directly affects the principle of operation and price. A plate with a minimum power is a battery made on the basis of single crystals, and they have the lowest price. Basically, they try to use them in those conditions where a constant supply of electricity is not too important.

Principle of operation of an individual solar battery

The owner of a private house and directly of such batteries should carefully monitor the photovoltaic panel to be clean, since if it receives a large amount of such contamination as snow, bird droppings and even dry foliage, This will reduce the efficiency of operation and reduce the level of the applied voltage. A solar battery for a house works on a special principle.

The principle of operation of an individual solar battery The principle of operation of an individual solar battery


  1. The solar energy is captured by a silicon-based plate.
  2. Heating releases energy.
  3. Then the electrons are activated, this facilitates their movement along the conductor.
  4. With conductors the current is sent to the battery chamber, this forms a kind of recharging.
  5. Through a wired connection, current flows to household appliances.

The principle of operation of the installation is quite understandable, but it is worth familiarizing with the features of the maintenance of batteries and whether it is required at all. Initially, it should be noted that there is no moving part in the solar battery, since these are stationary structures.

How maintenance is carried out so that the

solar battery works As a rule, cleaning of the coating should be done every 7 days. Experts believe that this is quite enough to maintain the optimal state of the plates in its pure form. It is also required to carry out a number of procedures, this will allow to operate the panels without problems, and also to eliminate the formation of defects and malfunctions.

It is necessary to clean the solar battery cover once in seven days Clean the solar panel cover once every seven days

Mandatory to carry out:

  1. Exterior inspection to determine the loosening of the fastenings and the formation of cracks in the frame.
  2. Panel cleaning.
  3. Power cable checks for bare wires, which can cause a fire.
  4. Controlling and recording the state of automation and instrumentation indicators.
  5. Track the battery charge level.
  6. Monitoring the condition of structural units of the unit for the detection of corrosive formations. Inspecting the strength of the panel casing.
  7. .

It also requires adjustments to the position of the structure, it depends on the time of year and tightening each threaded connection. In addition, it is possible to water the hose panels with the most common running water, for which 4 procedures are sufficient per year.

Efficiency of solar panels and other parameters

Make solar panels from a material such as silicon, and when buying it is worth paying attention to such features as the availability of an efficiency factor that should exceed 20%, a high level of resistance.

The availability of tempered glass, resistance to the harshest weather conditions, polycrystalline coating, if the product is installed in a region with a hot temperature, it is necessary.

It is important to have a single-crystal coating for areas with unfavorable climatic conditions. Modern silicon solar cookers have a number of advantages. Those who already use such installations respond very positively.

Solar panels are absolutely safe Solar panels are absolutely safe

Recognize such products:

  • Autonomous;
  • Maximally economical in terms of funds, as there is no need to pay for electricity;
  • Very easy to use, since no adjustment is needed;
  • Advantageous, since the resource is replenished automatically;
  • Environmental;
  • Safe;
  • Practical, as they can be as a reserve or main source;
  • Very durable.

There are some disadvantages, but against the background of many positive qualities they can be called not significant. They include high cost, low resistance to weather events, the need to prepare a place for the location of the structure, maintenance, a decrease in productivity in the winter, the need for modernization, if necessary, increase capacity and, accordingly, productivity.

Kinds of solar batteries

The most affordable products for capturing solar energy are single crystals, because they are made with the simplest technology and in terms of power can significantly give way to other types of plates. Each species has its own characteristics, due to which their choice takes place.

Solar panels come in three types:

  • Monocrystalline;
  • Polycrystalline;
  • Amorphous.

Solar plates are single-crystal, amorphous and polycrystalline Solar panels are monocrystalline, amorphous and polycrystalline

Panels made on the basis of polycrystalline silicon are the most expensive products, as they can store solar energy even in conditions of high clouds and cloudy weather. Their peculiarity consists in high productivity, as well as slow cooling of the silicon melt. After the fabric has completely cooled, it undergoes a second heat treatment.

These plates are available in a dark blue color.

If amorphous silicon is used to manufacture the board, then these are products not produced in large batches. These designs are at the stage of improvement, modernization, as some test models were on sale.

What mainly makes solar panels

Many owners think that if you yourself created such equipment, then you just need to follow the technology of system collection, but you should also meet the high requirements.

The solar battery is designed to capture the sun Solar battery designed to capture the sun's rays and convert them to electricity

The composition of the elements for solar energy capture is very simple, since all the designs consist of:

  • Solar module;
  • Controller;
  • Battery;
  • Inverter;
  • Primary Converter;
  • Set of wires;
  • Devices capable of monitoring battery power;
  • Power take-off devices for the battery.

In addition, polymer film roll coatings can be present on the plates, which are necessary to protect against external factors. The solar battery is designed to catch the rays of the sun and convert them into electricity.

Solar device and design nuances

Once you have purchased all the necessary fixtures, as well as materials and inventory, you can start building directly. He who invented and invented a solar battery himself, necessarily began with a design in which important points were taken into account.


  1. The location of the structure.
  2. The angle of the product.
  3. Calculate the load-bearing capacity of the roof, if the installation will be carried out on the roof itself, and not the walls or the foundation of the house.

For the frame, an aluminum corner is used, the thickness of which must be at least 35 mm. The volume of cells must completely converge with the number of photocells. For example, 835x690 mm. In the frame holes are made for hardware. On the inner part of the corner is applied sealant in 2 layers. The frame is filled with plexiglass, polycarbonate, plexiglass or any other material.

In order to seal the joints between the frame and the material web, it is necessary to carefully press the sheet along the entire perimeter.

Solar panels on the roof of the house must be properly fixed Solar panels on the roof of the house must be properly fixed

The product is left in the open until completely dry. The glass is fixed at 10 points, in pre-prepared holes, which must be located in the corner part of the frame and on each side. Before you fix the photocells, you need to clean the surface of the dust. Then solder the wire to the tile, for which the contacts are previously wiped with an alcohol solution, and are laid under the flux. When working with a crystal, you should be extremely cautious, since it has a too fragile structure.

The tire is laid over the entire length of the contact and slowly heated with a soldering iron. Next, the plates need to be turned over, and the same actions are carried out. Then, the photocells are placed on the surface of Plexiglas in a frame, and they are fixed to the mounting tape. As a fixator, a conventional silicone adhesive can be applied, which is applied in a dotted manner. One small drop is enough, as it is very durable.

The arrangement of crystals should be with gaps between them of 3-5 mm, so that when heated under the influence of ultraviolet rays there was no deformation of the surface. It is necessary to connect the conductor along the edges of the photocells with the common busbar cavity. By means of a special device, the quality of the soldering is tested. To seal the panel, a sealant is applied between the plates of the plates. It is necessary to carefully press the cloths to ensure maximum gluing to the glass. The edges of the frame are also smeared with sealant.

The side of the frame is equipped with a connector for connecting Schottky diodes. The frame is closed with glass for protection and joints are also sealed to prevent moisture from penetrating into the structure. On the front side, the panel needs to be treated with lacquer. The panel is installed on the roof, walls or any other place intended for it in advance.

Efficiency of the solar panel

As already noted, there are different types of solar cells and each of them has its own characteristic. It is worth noting that there are hybrid designs for capturing solar energy, but their cost is much higher, and they are mainly used for industrial buildings.

Naturally, the quality and performance of any solar battery directly depends on the efficiency of its solar cells, which can be affected by such factors as:

  • Climatic conditions;
  • Weather;
  • Duration of the day and night;
  • Evenness of panel lighting;
  • Air temperature changes;
  • Presence of dirt on the plastic;
  • Irreversible loss.

In general, the efficiency or, in other words, the performance of solar panels directly depends on the uniformity of the lighting of the structure. For example, if one of the building's photocells has a low intensity of illumination, unlike the others, this will cause an uneven distribution of the sun's rays when it hits the panel, which means that there will be an overload and a decrease in the total energy output.

To make the solar battery as productive as possible, it is necessary to direct it to the sun, depending on the season of the year In order to minimize the effect of this factor, in some cases, simply turn off the photocell that breaks down.

To ensure the maximum performance of a solar cell, you should direct it precisely to the sun, depending on the season. Some owners of such designs prefer to install special installations through which it is possible to remotely control or, in other words, to turn the structure in the desired direction. There are systems with automatic rotation depending on the location of the sun, which move during the day without assistance from outside the program.

In addition, the performance of the product can be affected by the presence of dust and dirt on the plate, as some of the photocells are darkened and thus the uneven distribution of solar energy intake, as described earlier, begins. On sale there is a special compound that can cover the surface of the solar battery and thus exclude the accumulation of pollutants of various nature on it.

How the solar battery works( video)

Solar battery is expensive equipment, regardless of whether it is assembled alone or bought in ready-made form, and the need for constant maintenance can bring discomfort, but once invested in this product, you canFor a long time to be satisfied with the constant presence of electricity and the lack of payment for it.