ladder is only to ensure that it was possible for her to climb or descend, but at the same time, construction of stairs, as well as forms, there are many options. Choose the most optimal version of the ladder with a competent specialist.
- Different designs ladders
- Structures stairs: general description
- modular ladder Structure: Description and characteristics
- Smart ladder structure on the second floor
- Types ladders in construction and description thereof
- Optimumdesign outdoor stairs
- types and designs of stairs( video)
Different designs of stairs
stairs - is not only a necessity, but also originalsAnd, in some cases, they can even be a kind of decoration.
sizes Moreover, there are different types and designs of stairs:
- By appointment all the stairs are divided into several main groups -Interstorey, entrance groups of ladders, working ladders, as well as special, in-house, Swedish constructions, serving for design, etc. In this case, the ladders are made, depending on requirements, from wood, metal, composite materials, concrete, and often combine materials.
- differ in structure staircases, it may be spiral staircase odnomarshevaya, mnogomarshevaya, foldable, circular, or with intermediate pivoting platforms etc.
- There are also staircases for the design of its elements, they can be closed or open types, and differ in the form of the steps.
Stairs there are a large number of types and types, ranging from simple designs and finishing with complex engineering structures. Complex types of ladders are best designed and calculated in special utilities, for example Archcad.
Structures stairs: general description
to cook the ladder successfully operated and maintained not only your weight but also the weight of moving people on it, it is necessary not only to calculate the load, but also to choose the most optimum support structure.
The ladder designs are different, which in turn consist of several basic elements:
- One of the mostReliable and simple of the load-bearing elements of the staircase are oblique, this is a bearing beam, on which the steps are laid. There is a supporting element of the bowstring, the steps are fastened to it with an end face, but in this case, after several years of operation, the steps may loosen and a creak appear.
- Bearing metal elements are bolts, they connect the steps together and are the main bearing element.
- Connect stairs marches with the help of turning or straight pads, we can say that the platform is also, in its own way, carrying elements of the whole structure.
It is still at the stage of construction of a house or other facility where the staircase is supposed to be planned, to consider what form it will be, and, in accordance with this, to choose the type of the bearing element.
Construction of the ladder: description and characteristics of the
It happens that, after the main stage of construction, there is a need to install a staircase leading from floor to floor, and in order not to redo all the work done in the house for the ladder, the best option is to install a prefabricated structure. Most often, in this case, use modular systems, which are interconnected by the principle of the designer. They are metal parts, which consist of two elements: a pipe and a metal plate welded to it, which serves to fasten the steps. By connecting the parts together, the base of the ladder is obtained, to which the steps, fences and other structures are attached, these types of ladders will be the easiest to assemble and do not require any special knowledge and skills.
In addition to these modular structures, there are other options:
- The composite spiral staircase is a metal module consisting of kegs, Washers, nuts and pins. It's just going to be assembled, first a barrel is installed and attached to the floor, a stud is screwed into it, a step is screwed onto the pin and fixed with a nut and washer. The top of this column is also attached to the ceiling. After the railings are installed.
- Ladders on metal kosoura - they can be from channels or I-beams. And also they are made of light prefabricated metal structures, which can also be assembled as a designer.
Such a combined ladder on the supports can even be assembled by hand, using the necessary instructions and diagrams. But, before that, you first need to develop a project in a firm, and then manufacture the supporting elements of the desired size.
Competent staircase design for the second floor
When building a two-story house, it is necessary to make a staircase so that you can move between floors. Most often, in a private house they make a wooden staircase leading to the second floor, which can be straight or with a turntable for 90 or 180 degrees, and, more often than not, is a prefabricated structure.
But before you put the ladder, precise measurements are necessary to make them different parts:
- The woodenStaircases, depending on the type, can consist of several basic elements, these are the supports( strips, strings) to which the steps are already attached, as well as from the platforms( if any) and other elements;
- More elaborate stairs can be additionally equipped with risers, supports, and, of course, railings made of balusters and different posts.
After all the elements are made, they should be delivered to the installation site and assembled together as a designer, connecting the carrier elements first, and then all the others.
All parts are joined with joinery glue, self-tapping screws, nails, etc.
Types of stairs according to the design and their description
Types of stairs can be different, they can be either basic or auxiliary. The ladder itself consists of inclined marches, grounds, fences and railings. In a large multi-storey house stairs are built in compliance with the norms of SNiP.
There are other types of stairs that are built in multi-storey houses and not only:
- Fire stairs, they are subject to certain requirements - they must be made of metal, a base of metal channels, and steps of iron rods. The right fire escape is 150-200 meters apart, and they are usually installed on buildings that have a height of more than 10 meters.
- In multi-storey houses, usually install reinforced concrete staircases connected to platforms, they should have, as a natural, And artificial lighting. Height, width and angle of inclination, and certain sizes are regulated by building norms and SNiP.
- Auxiliary ladders are designed to communicate with any work platform, or for lifting to any equipment, they usually have a fence and, if necessary, lighting.
Other types of stairs, for example, wooden are widely used in the construction of private houses, cottages, they can have a different design - classic, spiral, modular and even different original and cantilever designs.
Optimal design of the external ladder
Sometimes it is necessary to make a staircase outside the house in the extension because of space saving or for other reasons, for example, as a spare exit. Such a constructive solution can sometimes be the only correct one.
When building an external ladder, it is necessary to take into account the requirements for this type of stairs, taking into account the design features.
- To ensure the safety of movement, to be reliable and durable, and at the same time there should be a competent binding to the building. They can be a single-marshy two-marsh, etc., as well as straight and swivel.
- They can be profile, installed parallel to the facade, frontal, located at an angle of 90 degrees relative to the facade.
The shape of the pad can be rectangular, square and even oval. The simplest staircase of this type is the entrance to the house.
Types and designs of stairs( video)
In order to ensure that the external staircase is as less exposed to rain as possible, it is best to equip it with a visor from above, or in general make a completely enclosed structure. Such an improvement will allow you to calmly move up the stairs during a bad weather, and also such a ladder will not require snow removal during the winter.