The construction of a house made from aerated concrete is not a very easy thing to do, but compared to a brick or the same log house, efforts will have to be made much less. We will build a simple one-storey house on a ribbon foundation.
If you want, you can change the characteristics of the building at your own discretion - you just need to master the layout of the walls, all other activities are standard for homes from any materials.
|Characteristics of aerated concrete blocks( indicators)||Autoclaved aerated concrete|
|Density, kg / m3||500|
|Compressive strength class||B 2,5-3|
|Frost resistance, cycles||F50|
|Moisture ratio||Requires protection|
|Thermal conductivity, W / m * With||0,14|
|Thickness of external wall( Moscow region), m||0,5|
We remove everything that interferes with the site, clear it and proceed to marking. For this we use reinforcing bars and rope.
Define the axis of the future structure. Take the plumb line and outline the first corner of the basement. Perpendicular to it, we pull the rope to the second and third corners of the structure.
Use a square to mark the 4th angle. We measure the diagonals. If the length is the same - everything is fine, the angles are the same, you can poke the bars and pull the rope.
Similarly, we perform the internal marking of the base, receding from the outer order of 400 mm( the optimum value of the width for the ribbon foundation).
Trenches digging around the perimeter of the house and under the future inner walls.
Find the lowest point on the site. From here we measure the depth of the pit. A small house can be built on a 40-centimeter tape. In the rest, be guided by the features of the structure and the site as a whole( depth of freezing, groundwater level).
Important! The walls of the pit must be vertical, and the bottom - even. We check this by plumb and level.
We lay a pillow of sand on the bottom of the pit and carefully compact it. Such a cushion will promote a uniform distribution of the load on the base in the off-season. The recommended thickness is from 15 cm.
We pour rubble on sand and lay ruberoid.
We assemble it from boards, plywood and other similar materials. We fix the elements of the formwork with the help of nails or screws.
Important! The height of the formwork is such that it rises above the ground level by at least 300 mm.
On the inner perimeter of the formwork we pull the line at the level of the top face of the future pouring.
At the same stage, we plan the arrangement of holes for water supply and sewerage. For this, we put empty pipes in the right places and fill them with sand.
We take bars with a diameter of 12-14 m. We connect them to the grid using flexible steel wire. The grid cells can be of different sizes. The heavier the house, the smaller the side of the square. Most often enough grid power with 20x20 cm cells.
Make a grid by the size of the trench. Important! Between the laid reinforcing layer, the walls and the top of the trench, we leave 5-centimeter indents so that in the future all the reinforcement was guaranteed to be filled with concrete.
Multiply the width of the foundation by its length and height and determine the desired volume of concrete. Cooking or ordering the mixture. For cooking use the standard recipe:
Fill the concrete solution with uniform layers approximately 200 mm, do not rush. We puncture each layer of pouring with a wooden rammer. Fill the concrete to the level of the previously stretched rope in the space of the formwork.
Align the surface of the fill with a trowel and pierce concrete reinforcement in several places. From outside, gently tap the formwork with a wooden hammer.
We give the foundation a month for strength. During this time, we cover the structure with polyethylene to protect it from precipitation, and in hot weather we spill water to prevent cracking.
The formwork is recommended to be removed at least 10 days after pouring, and it is best to leave it for the entire month.
For construction in this example we use blocks with the construction of the type "groove-groove".They are easier to wear by hand. You can build from any other gas blocks - the order of work does not change.
Pre-clean the top of the dried foundation from the existing dirt and dust, and then cover it with a layer of roofing material.
For the first row we use a cement-sand mortar. It dries longer than a special glue, and we will have the opportunity to adjust the evenness of the row. The minimum layer thickness is 10 mm. There are no maximum restrictions. This will allow you to level the differences in height without much effort.
We find the highest angle - we will build from it. We take the line and mark the wall of the house. We lay the first gas block. Then expose the block for each remaining angle and pull the rope between the building elements.
Be sure to check the smoothness of the installation of each unit. We lay out the first row of blocks along the perimeter of the house and in the places where the inner walls are erected.
Important! Remember the door openings. Of course, we miss them.
We take polishing and we thoroughly grind the surface of the starting row. Next, we will do this with each laid nearby. Thanks to such processing, we can apply the adhesive as evenly as possible.
We put the second, and after it the third series. We use special glue for laying gas blocks. We work, as on the front row, starting from the corners. Rows are bandaged, shifting to half the block - like brickwork. The minimum allowable value of this shift when laying aerated concrete is 80 mm.
For applying glue we use buckets with denticles. Blocks are set as tightly as possible to each other, as far as the fingers allow, and shifts back to back. Check the levelness of the masonry level. If necessary, level the blocks with a rubber hammer. We work quickly and smoothly, becauseThe glue dries very quickly and it will be almost impossible to move the gas block.
Helpful hint! If, when laying the opening, it was not possible to get to the length of the whole gas block, saw off excess with a special saw or a simple hacksaw for the tree.
In this example, the window sills have a height of 4 rows of masonry. Window apertures reinforce after laying the third row. In this we help shtroborez.
In the place of arrangement of the window aperture Strohbim 2 parallel lines. By the length they should go out of the window by 300 mm from each side.
In the shtroby we lay the bars of the reinforcement and fix them with a cement-sand mortar. Done! The wall for installing the window is strengthened.
We continue to spread the gas blocks to the glue according to the already familiar scheme.
Important! Openings for installing windows are better not to pawn. Of course, in the future they can be cut, but it's a waste of time and energy.
Gradually, we approached the jumpers. These structures are needed to strengthen the section of the wall above the door and window openings. Without jumpers, the design can simply collapse.
You can either use the finished U- shaped blocks( glue to the required length, install, put the reinforcement and fill with cementsolution) or to make the formwork in-house.
For the manufacture of formwork, it is most convenient to use gas blocks 10 cm wide. Blocks we fasten with glue. If there is no possibility to buy 10-centimeter blocks, we simply saw the usual gas-block for 3 identical pieces.
We glue the blocks to the required length, we make 3 longitudinal ditches with a cutter, we put reinforcing bars in them, fill the cement slurry and give it a day to dry.
Set the jumpers side down with the valve. Spaces are filled with gas blocks, if necessary pre-cut to the required dimensions.
After equipping the series with window lintels, we proceed to pouring the armopoyas, it's also a seismic belt. The construction is made of reinforced concrete and ensures the integrity of the aerated concrete structure.
We take 10-centimeter blocks and form a formwork of them along the perimeter of the walls. Fill the ditch with the reinforcement and fill the grout.
In armopoyas we mount metal studs for fixing the Mauerlat. We can make them from the armature. Even more convenient option - threaded studs. It is easier to mount Mauerlat on them.
This box of the house is ready.
Mauerlat we have already mounted. It's time to set the rafters. At this stage, all individually - be guided by the features of the chosen roofing structure.
Several options are available:
Regardless of the selected roof structure, it needs to be completed with insulating layers: hydro, thermal and vapor barrier. In some cases( for example, when a residential attic is being equipped) a layer of soundproof material is mounted.
We fix the waterproofing material over the rafters. It is most convenient to do this with wooden racks. At the same time, the slats will play the role of a rebound, to which the rails of the roofing material will be fixed in the future.
Under the waterproofing in the space between the rails of the battens we lay the heater. Most often used mineral wool. If you want, you can choose another material( expanded polystyrene, polystyrene foam, etc.).
Thermal insulation is covered with a layer of vapor barrier film. It is fastened to the rafters with the help of wooden rails.
At the end we lay the final roofing. In this moment, be guided by the available budget and personal preferences. Most popular materials:
Any roofing material is laid from the bottom. As a result, the sheets will be fixed so that the sedimentary moisture can drain without penetrating the roofing flooring.
This is a box of gas units with a roof ready. Next, you are expected to work on the installation of utilities and finishing, but this is already a topic for individual leadership.