When building a residential house, many processes must be carried out at altitude, and therefore, without reliable forests, it is indispensable. The most optimal solution is to build scaffolding with your own hands, then you will not have to pay rent and spend time transporting the structure. They are wooden and metal, and depending on the material, the assembly technology has some differences.
Contents of the article
Both wooden and metal scaffolding have the same elements:
Wooden structures are easier to assemble - they are smaller in size, and all the details are knocked together by nails. At the same time, such scaffolds are not designed for heavy loads, their dismantling takes time, and reassembly will be less robust, since there are holes in the nails from the nails. Metal pipe scaffolds are much stronger, they can be easily built up if necessary, and the reliability of the connections remains high no matter how many times the structure is dismantled and reassembled.
Depending on the method of attachment, there are 4 main types of scaffolding.
Table. Types of forests
|Types of scaffold||Description|
|frame||metal structures made of vertical frames fastened together by diagonal and horizontal struts. These scaffolds are light in weight, easy to install|
|wedge||very robust and sturdy construction, all elements of which are fixed by special holders|
|pin||rarely used scaffolding, which are easy and simple to assemble, they are very expensive,ground pressure|
|clamps||are universal woods, perfectly suitable for buildings of complex geometric shapes. The assembly process is quite laborious, but if necessary the shape of the structure can be easily changed horizontally and vertically|
In order for the woods to work comfortably, there should be a distance of 2 to 2.5 meters between the posts, the width of the deck is not less than 1m, and the total height of the forests is a maximum of 6 m. Based on these parameters, an approximate design drawing is made.
For work you will need:
Wood must be dense and dry, without cracks. A raw tree will weight the structure, and after drying it can be deformed. As forests are only required for the period of construction or finishing of the house, it is not necessary to treat them with antiseptic compounds and do not need sanding.
4 timbers are cut to the height of the scaffolding and laid on a level platform. Now take 2 bars of 4 m and 2 on 3,6 m, and nail them from the inside to the supporting beams: smaller on the upper edge, 4 m - on the bottom. There should be two identical trapezoids, which should be further strengthened by diagonal struts.
The frames are lifted, placed vertically opposite to the other and temporarily fastened with sidewalls: the distance between the lower edges of the posts should be 1.15 m, between the upper ones about 1 m. Check the position of the sidewalls horizontally with the building level, and if everything is correct, firmly knock down the framework with nails. The finished structure must have a pyramidal shape and strictly horizontal sidewalls.
flooring To the upper transverse blocks, you need to nail the floorboards. It is best to fill them in the width of the frame;The boards are stacked closely, without gaps at the joints. On the sides of the carcass mount additional cross-members, which can be used as stairs.
In private construction it is most convenient to use frame metal scaffolding with wooden decking. They consist of several sections, the number of which depends on the length of the building and its height. For the manufacture of sections suitable steel and aluminum racks;If larger loads are assumed, it is better to choose steel elements. The standard section has a height of 1.5 m, a width of 1 m and a length of 1.65 to 2 m.
For operation you will need:
From pipes with a diameter of 15 mm cut the workpiece for the spacers: the length of the horizontal is 96 cm, the diagonal - 2 m. Then on the ends of the two-meter tubes make incisions of 6 cm and flatten. This will simplify the fastening of the struts to the bearing racks.
adapters To build the scaffolds, you need the adapter connectors. They are made from profile pipes: 25x25 mm pipes are cut into parts of 30 cm in length, and cuts of 8 cm are cut from 30x30 mm tubes. Wrap short blanks for long ones and weld them in the middle to exclude shifts.
stands Two vertical posts are connected by horizontal spacers, welding them every 30 cm. A frame is obtained in the form of a ladder. Similarly, the second frame is assembled. Of the sheet metal, cut out the square plates 70x70 mm and weld them flat to the lower ends of the support posts. Thanks to this, the sections of the section will not fall into the ground, although on dense soils under the metal plates additional dense wooden planks are additionally laid.
Two frames are mounted vertically opposite one another and try on diagonal struts. The markers mark fixing points, then drill holes in bolts in the struts and spacers. Connect all the parts together and check the horizontal level of the upper bars. If the design is skewed, it will be necessary to customize all the elements, otherwise it will be difficult to stay on the forests.
The floor boards can be laid in two ways - along the length of the section and across. For the transverse flooring on the sides of the structure, bolt horizontal pipes at the level of the upper spacers. For longitudinal decking take boards at least 2 m in length, knock down the width of the section, reinforce from below the transverse bars from the deflection.
To ensure that the floor does not move during operation, the metal U-shaped profile should be fixed at its ends along the thickness of the spacer. To do this, stack the finished shield on the scaffolding and from below mark the line with a marker where the horizontal brace touches the boards. Similarly, marking from the other end of the shield is done. Next, take a profile width of 17-20 mm, cut it to the width of the deck and screwed with screws to the boards on the marked lines. Now, when the flooring is laid on the scaffolding, the spacers will be inside the profile, which will not allow the boards to move.
Metal scaffolds are intended for reusable use, which means they need a protective treatment. As forests are more often used for outdoor work, the frame is covered with corrosion from dampness, especially at anchoring points. Therefore, after manufacturing and checking the scaffolding, each element should be sanded, wiped off with dust, primed and dyed. Wooden flooring is also treated with an antiseptic and color to protect from moisture and rot.