In our time it is difficult even to theoretically imagine the life of a modern man without using electricity. Electrodevices of various purposes have become so firmly entrenched in our everyday life that one does not want to part with such "benefits of civilization" even for a short time. Agree that even a temporary power outage can almost completely paralyze the household. And if in cities with interruptions in the filing of "light" is all no less successful, then in the countryside this "cataclysm", alas, is still not uncommon.
There are other situations when it is very difficult to do without electricity, and there is nowhere to connect. A typical example is the beginning of individual construction on a site where the supply of electric power has not yet been organized. Yes, and going to rest with an overnight stay will also be much more comfortable if it becomes possible to connect at least the minimum necessary electrical appliances. In all
So, the portable gasoline power stations which one to choose from the assortment presented in stores, what to pay special attention to when buying - answer the answers in this publication.
Contents of the article
Mobile power station, or, as they are often called - the power generator, is a dosa complex electromechanical device. Its main task is to convert the energy potential of liquid or gaseous fuels first into kinetic and then into electrical energy for its further use for domestic or economic purposes. There is a great variety of models, but always and in all there are the main units and units that ensure the functioning of this device:
The internal combustion engine( item 1) generates kinetic energy - creates a torque that, directly or through a mechanismtransmission is transmitted to the generator shaft( item 4).The engine has a built-in starting system - starter, manual( as shown in item 2) or( and) electric. Fuel supply for engine operation is carried out from the built-in tank( item 3) of a certain capacity.
Conversion of the kinetic energy of shaft rotation into electrical energy occurs in the generator( item 4).
The whole structure is assembled on one frame( item 5), or in a common housing. Usually convenient handles are provided for carrying a power plant, and sometimes a wheeled cart for facilitating the movement of heavy models.
Most modern portable generators are equipped with a control unit( item 6) with instrumentation, which allows monitoring the operation of both the mechanical and electrical parts of the unit. Some models do not have such a block, but usually they have the option of installing it optional. In any case, there are one or several outlets( outlets)( item 7) for connecting consumers of electricity generated.
Portable petrol power stations can be used in different ways:
The potential owner, intending to acquire a gasoline power station, must clearly understand in what role he is going to use it. Many criteria for evaluating and selecting the necessary model depend directly on this.
Even the smallest gasoline power plant is still a cheap purchase, designed for long-term use. In order not to throw money away, when choosing the optimal model, it is necessary to take into account a lot of nuances. And you need to start at home, with calculations, what power generator you need.
This is probably one of the most complex and controversial issues, which, as already mentioned above, directly depends on a clear understanding of the future owner of the intended purpose of the power plant being purchased.
The fact is that on the Internet you can find a lot of recommendations on calculating the generator's power, which are reduced to the fact that it is necessary to add up the power consumption of the electrical appliances available in the house, taking into account the peak starting loads( they will be discussed below), and will be receivedthe required power value. It would seem that everything is correct, but we are talking about a portable gasoline power station, which will be regarded as the main source of energy as a strong exaggeration, since the possibilities of such equipment are still limited. And if you sum up all the power values and take this as a basis for choice, it becomes clear that no compact portable station with such a load can cope.
And this means that when calculating the required capacity, it is nevertheless necessary to set certain priorities, to approach the matter with reasonable expediency. Several examples can be explained:
These were general recommendations, and now - to the calculation itself. When summing up the power of household appliances and tools, it is necessary to take into account that they can seriously differ in the type of electrical load. So, the passport power indicators of the device may not fully reflect the peak load at power-up.
To determine the total starting reactive power, the following dependence is used:
Wn = Wn / cos φ
Wn is the total power that must be taken into account when calculating the parameters of the power plant.
Wn - the nominal active power of the device, it is indicated in the product passport.
cos φ - power factor, taking into account the presence of the reactive component. Equal to the cosine of the phase shift between the sinusoids of alternating current and voltage. Usually this value is also indicated in the product passport.
For example, the pump's passport indicates that the device has a rated power of 1.5 kW, and a value of cos φ = 0.84 is given. Hence, the total power of the device is already 1.5 / 0.84 = 1.79 ≈ 1.8 kW.The addition of 300 watts is quite significant, especially for compact power plants.
If the value of the power factor is unknown, then you can use the approximate correction factor for various types of household appliances. In this case, the nominal power value is multiplied by the indicated factor:
Some values of these coefficients are given in the table:
|Instrument types||Correction factor to the nominal power consumption|
|Incandescent and energy-saving fluorescent lamps||1|
|Electric stoves, electric kettles, iron||1|
|Multimedia technology andcomputers||1.15|
|Circulation pumps and control units for heating boilers||1.5|
|Household fans, kitchen hoods||2|
|Washing and dishwasher||2.5|
|Submersible pumps and external pumping stations||3|
|Kitchen appliances - electric meat grinders, blenders, etc.||3|
|refrigerator, air conditioning||3.5|
|Trimmer, Electric shears garden||1.2|
|Electric drill, grinding machine||1.25|
|Punch, angular, grinder, elektronozhovka or chainsaw, elektrorubanok||1.5|
|pump for irrigation||2.5|
This factor takes into account the starting peak of the current consumed.
Thus, it is possible to write out those devices that are likely to be simultaneously used in the operation of a gasoline power plant. Then the nominal nominal power of each is multiplied by the corresponding coefficient, the obtained indicators are summed up - and, in the end, the required value of the generator output is obtained. To it it is advisable to add another 10-25% to create a certain reserve.
Quickly estimate the necessary power of the gasoline power station will help and placed below the calculator. He, of course, takes into account the very average values of the power of average household appliances and power tools, but, nevertheless, provides an opportunity to present a general picture.
obtained value becomes a reference point for the selection of the required pattern generator - its performance should be above calculation. However, to get carried away, to put too much power reserve "just in case" - still not worth it. This, firstly, leads to an increase in the cost of a power plant, the possibility of which will remain unclaimed. Secondly, the work of a gasoline power plant without sufficient load does not do it good for it - the candle is covered with soot, the oil "ages" quickly, the piston group wears out faster, the engine life is reduced. And, thirdly, if you calculate the cost of each kilowatt used relative to the price of consumed gasoline, it is clear that for the optimal ratio of the generator's power output and consumed values, it should not be too different.
Another important remark about the power of the electric power plant. In the technical documentation of the product, two power values are usually indicated - maximum and nominal, and the difference between them can be quite substantial, reaching 15-20%. When choosing the model you need to focus exclusively on the nominal value! The maximum value - this is the upper limit of the load, which can "pull" the generator for a very short time, for example, with some inconsistency in the use of energy-intensive tools. But the duration of the unit in such conditions is limited to only a few minutes, and sometimes - even tens of seconds.
The reliability of a portable power plant primarily depends on the type and quality of the power drive. In our case we are talking about a gasoline internal combustion engine.
By the principle of their work, all gasoline ICEs are divided into two large groups:
Such power units are usually installed on compact portable power plants with a small output power rating. Their main advantage is mobility. But here the motor resource of such engines is small - it usually does not exceed 500 hours.
Another specific feature of two-stroke engines is the need to prepare a fuel mixture of gasoline and a special engine oil in a certain proportion. Not very convenient, but the engine does not have an additional lubrication system.
So, two-stroke engines are good for gasoline power plants of low power, designed not for short periods of time, for example, in field or field conditions.
These engines are always more powerful, designed for a much longer duration of operation. But with the launch they are more difficult - in frosty weather in the field conditions to crank and start the unit - not so easy. In addition, four-stroke engines require more attention in terms of regular maintenance.
The internal combustion engine can be differentiated by the material of manufacture.
. Many manufacturers of gasoline generators use for their products engines of famous world brands. If there is a possibility to choose, then the preference should be given to the models for which the ICE of Briggs & Stratton, Honda, Yamaha, and Robin-Subaru are installed - there should not be any quality problems in this case.
Most of the engines installed on portable power plants have an air cooling system. Although it is somewhat vulnerable to external operating conditions, it is often enough. The water cooling system is used, as a rule, in installations of increased power, designed for long-term non-stop operation.
Generation of electricity occurs in the generating unit, which means that its features must also be taken into account.
First of all, all the generators installed on portable power plants are divided into synchronous and asynchronous.
All petrol stations are designed to produce alternating current.can be different: on sale models are single-phase( 220 V) and three-phase( 380 V).
If we are talking about portable generators, then the choice is clearly made in favor of single-phase - a powerful three-phase load such as a welding machine or pumping station they just do not pull, and not for this are purchased. You can, of course, purchase a three-phase generator, and use it as a power source for conventional household appliances. However, this is an unnecessary overexpenditure. And in addition, there is a possibility for inexperience to mis-distribute the load in phases, which often leads to overheating of the windings and equipment failure.
Some generators are also equipped with a DC output( usually - 12V).A very convenient option for the use of low-voltage tools and lighting, or, for example, charging batteries.
Any potential owner should always be interested in how much the equipment will be convenient in the planned operation.
power plant These parameters are directly related to the generator power. Everything depends on what conditions of exploitation are assumed by the owner.
On the layout of the most common are power plant frame type. All the main units and assemblies, from the ICE to the control unit, are assembled on a metal frame. All in sight, reliable ventilation is provided.
The generator is easy to carry behind the frame, and in addition, it can be fitted with a wheel-travel to facilitate movement within, for example, a construction site.
If the emphasis is made on the convenience of transportation, for example, in a car, on compactness, then it makes sense to choose a mini-power plant of a modular type that is assembled in a single closed case and somewhat like a suitcase.
The power of such generators usually lies in the range from 0.7 to 2.5 kW, and the mass - up to 20 kg - is quite feasible for movement by one person. Given the increased security of such a generator from the propagated noise, such a choice becomes optimal for trips to rest or for hunting and fishing.
The engine can be started manually or by using an electric starter.
On compact models, a manual start system is usually installed - a drum with an exhaust cable and a handle. With a well-tuned engine, the launch does not present any difficulty - this option will be optimal for field trips or conditions, when the compactness, small mass comes to the fore. And the cost of such generators is much lower.
Generators with electric start system are equipped with a starter, which, accordingly, implies the presence of a battery. All this leads to an increase in the overall dimensions and mass of the product. But this is necessary, for example, if the power plant is used in "standby mode" as a backup power source - if the external voltage fails, the automatic system will start the unit independently. Optionally, you can provide and remote start the generator, for example, so as not to run to it on the job site.
As a rule, all gasoline generators equipped with an integrated electric starter have a manual start system.
power plant A very important evaluation criterion. It depends on the capacity of the fuel tank, and on the design features of a particular model.
Manufacturers in the technical documentation usually indicate the recommended mode of operation of the generator - the alternation of cycles of continuous operation and the necessary pauses. Typically, the volume of the fuel tank and the fuel consumption of the engine at the rated load are calculated so that the permissible duration of continuous operation is not exceeded.
At medium-power plants, the operating time can be up to 10 hours. Compact units are usually designed for only 2 ÷ 3 hours of continuous operation, after which a mandatory pause should follow.
The specific use of the generator can make you pay attention to some necessary options.
Such an automation unit can be built-in, and only the mains wires will be left to it. Some gasoline power stations are not equipped with such a unit, but there is an option of its optional installation or connection to an external control device - there is an appropriate connector.
If this is the intended use of the generator, then at this point should pay special attention.
. This abbreviation says that the circuit of the device is equipped with an automatic output voltage stabilization system. It will be maintained at a given level, regardless of how many points of consumption are connected to a particular moment. Thus, possible fluctuations, characteristic, for example, for the moments of switching on of a powerful technique with a high starting current, are smoothed out.
If special requirements are imposed on the generator output voltage, it makes sense to purchase an inverter generator. Its main difference is a special system of double conversion of the current produced - from a variable one to a constant one, and then, after filtering and smoothing the oscillations - back to the variable, but with a stable "geometry" of the sinusoid. As a result, the resulting alternating current is highly stable - the maximum deviations from the reference voltage and frequency parameters do not exceed 2 ÷ 2.5%.
Such stable characteristics are extremely important for computer equipment, microprocessor alarm systems, electronic control units - there is no need to install additional stabilizers.
In addition, inverter power plants have other advantages:
Of the shortcomings can be noted only a short duration of continuous operation( limited usually two to three hours), and the high cost of power plants of this class.
The variety presented in the sale of gasoline generators is extremely large, which, incidentally, often makes it difficult to choose the right model. It is simply impossible to tell about all producers on the scale of one article, so we will simply point out the most authoritative brands.
is used as the highest authority. The Japanese companies "Makita", "Honda", "Yamaha", "Subaru" are rightfully considered to be "Fashion Lawmakers".This level is also consistent with the South Korean generators "Hyundai"
German power stations "Fubag" are undoubtedly used. Behind other German generators - "Huter" the glory of "neubivaemye" is firmly entrenched - they are so reliable and durable. Constantly high demand for the products of another company from Germany - "Hammer".
Only positive feedbacks for high engine life, low noise and vibration, an excellent ratio of power and size deserved gasoline power plants of French production - "SDMO" and "Caiman".The generators of "Resant" of the Latvian company are famous for their failure-free operation, in the production of which the best German technologies were applied.
. What about China? Quite decent technology are gasoline generators "Elitech" and "Kipor" - the manufacturers give a decent guarantee, and the devices are very good at showing themselves in operation. There are a number of other Chinese companies that produce similar power plants with Japanese engines installed on them, which in itself speaks for a certain quality assurance. But, unfortunately, among the Chinese variety is a lot of low-quality products of unknown names. They may be attracted by the price, but waiting for them to continue their trouble-free operation is already a "lottery", as luck would have it.
. It's better to dwell on domestic models - they, along with reasonable prices, also attract access to service. And the quality of Russian technology of this class, for example, brands Energomash, Svarog, Energo, Caliber, Zubr and some others has already successfully competed with foreign models.